法国,巴黎,巴黎歌剧院/Charles Garnier

巴黎歌剧院(The Paris Opera或者Palais Garnier)是世界上最著名的礼堂。拥有2,200个座位,Charles Garnier设计,它是当时最突出的建筑杰作之一。

巴黎歌剧院是作为工程巨大的巴黎重建的一部分,该计划由法兰西第二帝国皇帝拿破仑三世的发起。皇帝选择了奥斯曼男爵监督重建,皇帝首先命令他清空12,000平方米的场地建设剧院,它是世界第二座歌剧院,容纳著名的巴黎歌剧院芭蕾舞团。1861年举行了开放的设计竞赛,当时不知名的32岁建筑师Charles Garnier获胜。

虽然皇帝拿破仑三世的脑子里有了设计的蓝图(获得了皇帝的支持),可还是遇到各种挫折和自然灾害。1862年开始建设后,但没有多久,工人们发现剧院的选址是严重的错误,地面十分泥泞,下面还有地下湖。这推迟了混凝土基础浇筑,历时八个月不断抽水。还有更多的挫折困扰,包括普法战争,法兰西第二帝国国力大幅下滑,以及巴黎公社起义。

1873年10月下旬,当时闻名的Salle Le Peletier剧院发生持续27小时的火灾。要求尽快完成新剧场,大量的劳动力保证能在1874年底能够完成巴黎歌剧院。1875年1月举行了一个豪华盛大开幕式,成为戏剧的家园,据说,1896年歌剧院大吊灯坠落杀死一个人,从此开始闹鬼,该传说激发了Gaston Leroux的灵感,在戏剧中加上了地下湖泊和暗室的元素。

巴黎歌剧院是新巴洛克风格的,该术语的意思是:它包括了巴洛克风格的主要特征,并且在巴洛克时代之后的一段时间内的风格。巴黎美术学院也采用同样的风格,其平面轴向对称,外观装饰华丽。巴黎歌剧院对城市意义之一是它位于欧莱雅大街的北端。是轴线终点的公共空间,对社区有重要意义。

观众座席的中心有一个悬挂吊灯,重六吨以上,大舞台能容纳450名艺术家。堂皇的装饰着大理石线脚,柱子和雕像,其中有许多是用来描绘希腊神话中的天神。巴黎歌剧院是社交中心,可以容纳大量人群,所以它有复杂的走廊,楼梯间,斜坡和壁龛,容纳大量人员流动,同时也允许中场休息进行社交社交聚会的空间。

巴黎歌剧院非常有影响力,它是世界各地许多剧院建筑的原型。

建筑师: Charles Garnier

地点:巴黎,法国

项目年份: 1878

摄影: Wikimedia Commons

参考文献: Gerard Fontaine, Anna Irina Kukrika, Christopher Curtis Mead


The Paris Opera, or Palais Garnier, is the most famous auditorium in the world. With 2,200 seats, this opera house designed by Charles Garnier is admired as one of the most prominent architectural masterpieces of its time.

The Paris Opera was designed as part of the great Parisian reconstruction, which was initiated by Emperor Napolean III of the Second Empire. The emperor chose Baron Haussmann to supervise the reconstruction, first ordering that he clear 12,000 square metres of land on which the theatre was to be built. This would be the second theatre for the world renowned Parisian Opera and Ballet companies. An open competition was announced in 1861, which was won by Charles Garnier who was an unknown 32-year-old architect at the time.

Although the design of the building seemed to be just what Emperor Napolean III had in mind, the setbacks and natural disasters were not what the builders needed. Once construction had begun in 1862, it didn’t take long before the workers realized a critical error in the location on which the opera would be built; the ground of the lot was extremely swampy, under which flowed a subterranean lake. This delayed the pouring of the concrete foundation, as the water had to be continuously pumped out, lasting eight months. More setbacks troubled the builders, including the Franco-Prussian War, the subsequent fall of the Second French Empire, and the Paris Commune.

A fire raged for 27 hours straight in late October 1873, burning down the current theater known as the Salle Le Peletier. This added extra pressure to complete the new theatre, and the massive workforce was able to finish building the Palais Garnier by late 1874. It’s inauguration followed soon after, in January of 1875, opening with a lavish gala. As the home of the original Phantom of the Opera, it is said that the opera is haunted as a person was killed in 1896 by a falling counterweight of the grand chandelier. This incident inspired Gaston Leroux in the original writing of the play, as did the underground lake and cellars.

Palais Garnier is of the Neo-Baroque style, a term used to describe architecture that encompasses the key characteristics of Baroque style although built after the proper time period. The monumental style can also be classified as Beaux-Arts, with its use of axial symmetry in plan, and its exterior ornamentation. One of the major urban implications of the Paris Opera is it’s location at the northern end of Avenue de l’Opera in France. It’s role as the terminal axial point suggests that as a public space, it should hold much importance in the community.

The audience sits centered around a hanging chandelier, weighing over six tons, and the large stage was built to accommodate up to 450 artists. It is opulently decorated with marble friezes, columns, and statuary, many of which are used to portray deities from Greek mythology. The Paris Opera was meant to be a social gathering space for the people, which is reflected in the interweaving corridors, stairwells, landings and alcoves which allow movement of large masses of people while also permitting socializing during intermission.

Palais Garnier became an influential architectural prototype for many theaters built around the world.

Architect: Charles Garnier

Location: Paris, France

Project Year: 1878

Photographs: Wikimedia Commons

References: Gerard Fontaine, Anna Irina Kukrika, Christopher Curtis Mead