美国,达拉斯,迪-查尔斯•威利剧院/ REX | OMA

建筑师:REX | OMA

地点:美国达拉斯

主要工作人员:Joshua Prince-Ramus (Partner-in-Charge) and Rem Koolhaas, with Erez Ella, Vincent Bandy, Vanessa Kassabian, Tim Archambault

总建筑师:Kendall/Heaton Associates

客户:The AT&T Performing Arts Center

顾问:Cosentini, DHV, Donnell, Front, HKA, Magnusson Klemencic, McCarthy, McGuire, Pielow Fair, Plus Group, Quinze & Milan, Theatre Projects, Tillotson Design, Transsolar, 2×4

机电/防火设计工程师:Transsolar Energietechnik, Germany

机电/防火在册工程师:Cosentini Associates, New York

在册结构工程师:Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Seattle

剧院设计:Theatre Projects Consultants, Connecticut

声学:Dorsserblesgraaf, Netherlands

美国残障人士法案(ADA)专家:McGuire Associates, Massachusetts

施工管理:McCarthy Construction

成本:Donnell Consultants, Florida

立面:Front, New York

家具:Quinze & Milan, Kortrijk Belgium

平面设计/路标:2 x 4, New York

生命安全:Pielow Fair, Seattle

照明:Tillotson Design Associates, New York

垂直输送:HKA, California

项目面积:7,700 sqm

项目年份:2006-2009

摄影:Iwan Baan, Tim Hursley, Jeffrey Buehner

达拉斯剧院中心(DTC)以新作品层出不穷闻名于世,这是因为剧院一直坚持在这个历史悠久的场所中进行实验,并使之保持临时场所的性质。DTC位于艺术区剧院,破旧的金属顶棚让常驻这里的各家公司少受到许多固定舞台构造带来的束缚,而且避免损坏昂贵的室内装修。在那里工作的艺术指导不断挑战传统习俗,经常为实现自己的艺术效果而重新设定戏剧舞台的形式。因此,艺术区剧院成为全美国有名的布景灵活度最大的剧院。然而,不停重新设计舞台的费用造成了沉重的经济负担,DTC最终将其舞台固定为“伸展式舞台”。

为DTC进行改造设计面临着几大挑战。首先,新剧院需要与以前剧院一样具有临时性质,舞台布置灵活度高。其二,新场地不但要灵活、形式多样,还能保证最低的运营成本。

迪-查尔斯•威利剧院颠覆传统剧院设计传统,克服了这些挑战。威利剧院并未将前台和后台围绕着观众席和舞台塔布置,而是将这些设施叠加在建筑的上下方空间。这一战略将建筑物转变成一台巨大的“剧院机器”。只要按下按钮,剧院就可以转化为构造各异的舞台,其中包括镜框式、伸展式和平面式舞台,让艺术指导和舞台布景师们能够自由定义舞台与观众的位置关系,满足他们的艺术需求。此外,为了鼓励变动室内布置,表演空间有意采用廉价材料建造。而舞台和观众席表面可以在有限的成本内进行如下改动:切割、钻孔、上色、焊接、锯切、打钉、粘贴以及缝合。

将威利剧院的附属设施布置在建筑的垂直方向也解放了整个表演区域,幻想与现实可在任意时间、任意地点结合。艺术指导能随心所欲地将达拉斯天际线和街景融入到艺术表演中,因为安装了隐藏式遮光帘、由声学玻璃立面包裹的观众席是可以开启和关闭的。立面的面板也可以开启,让顾客或表演者可以绕过外面的楼下大厅,直接由室外进入观众席或舞台。

威利剧院也通过投资基础设施,让表演空间可随时转变,布置灵活,赋予艺术指导足够的自由度去决定整个剧场给人的体验,从观众的到来到表演布置,再到离开剧院。威利剧院可连续几天在镜框式舞台上表演莎士比亚戏剧,或者在平面式舞台上以达拉斯市容为背景表演贝克特的剧目。迪-查尔斯•威利剧院从原先的艺术区剧院吸取经验,并在其基础上改进,将恢复达拉斯“最灵活剧院之乡”的美名,就算不是整个世界范围内的,也是全美国范围内的。


Architects: REX | OMA

Location: Dallas, USA

Key Personnel: Joshua Prince-Ramus (Partner-in-Charge) and Rem Koolhaas, with Erez Ella, Vincent Bandy, Vanessa Kassabian, Tim Archambault

Executive Architect: Kendall/Heaton Associates

Client: The AT&T Performing Arts Center

Consultants: Cosentini, DHV, Donnell, Front, HKA, Magnusson Klemencic, McCarthy, McGuire, Pielow Fair, Plus Group, Quinze & Milan, Theatre Projects, Tillotson Design, Transsolar, 2×4

MEP/FP Design Engineer: Transsolar Energietechnik, Germany

MEP/FP Engineer of Record: Cosentini Associates, New York

Structural Engineer of Record: Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Seattle

Theatre Design: Theatre Projects Consultants, Connecticut

Acoustics: Dorsserblesgraaf, Netherlands

ADA: McGuire Associates, Massachusetts

Construction Management: McCarthy Construction

Cost: Donnell Consultants, Florida

Facades: Front, New York

Furniture: Quinze & Milan, Kortrijk Belgium

Graphics/Wayfinding: 2 x 4, New York

Life Safety: Pielow Fair, Seattle

Lighting: Tillotson Design Associates, New York

Vertical Transport: HKA, California

Project Area: 7,700 sqm

Project year: 2006-2009

Photographs: Iwan Baan, Tim Hursley, Jeffrey Buehner

The Dallas Theater Center (DTC) is known for its innovative work, the result of its leadership’s constant experimentation and the provisional nature of its long-time home. DTC was housed in the Arts District Theater, a dilapidated metal shed that freed its resident companies from the limitations imposed by a fixed-stage configuration and the need to avoid harming expensive interior finishes. The directors who worked there constantly challenged the traditional conventions of theater and often reconfigured the form of the stage to fit their artistic visions. As a result, the Arts District Theater was renowned as the most flexible theater in America. The costs of constantly reconfiguring its stage, however, became a financial burden and eventually DTC permanently fixed its stage into a “thrust-cenium.”

Imagining a replacement for DTC’s old house raised several distinct challenges. First, the new theater needed to engender the same freedoms created by the makeshift nature of its previous home. Second, the new venue needed to be flexible and multi-form while requiring minimal operational costs.

The Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre overcomes these challenges by overturning conventional theater design. Instead of circling front-of-house and back-of-house functions around the auditorium and fly tower, the Wyly Theatre stacks these facilities below-house and above-house. This strategy transforms the building into one big “theater machine.” At the push of a button, the theater can be transformed into a wide array of configurations—including proscenium, thrust, and flat floor—freeing directors and scenic designers to choose the stage-audience configuration that fulfills their artistic desires. Moreover, the performance chamber is intentionally made of materials that are not precious in order to encourage alterations; the stage and auditorium surfaces can be cut, drilled, painted, welded, sawed, nailed, glued and stitched at limited cost.

Stacking the Wyly Theatre’s ancillary facilities above- and below-house also liberates the performance chamber’s entire perimeter, allowing fantasy and reality to mix when and where desired. Directors can incorporate the Dallas skyline and streetscape into performances at will, as the auditorium is enclosed by an acoustic glass façade with hidden black-out blinds that can be opened or closed. Panels of the façade can also be opened to allow patrons or performers to enter into the auditorium or stage directly from outside, bypassing the downstairs lobby.

By investing in infrastructure that allows ready transformation and liberating the performance chamber’s perimeter, the Wyly Theatre grants its artistic directors freedom to determine the entire theater experience, from audience arrival to performance configuration to departure. On consecutive days, the Wyly Theatre can produce Shakespeare on a proscenium stage or Beckett in a flat-floor configuration silhouetted against the Dallas cityscape. Both learning from, and improving upon, DTC’s original Arts District Theater, the Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre will restore Dallas as the home of the most flexible theater in America, if not the world.