葡萄牙,Possanco住宅/ ARX

建筑师:ARX- José Mateus, Nuno Mateus, with Stefano Riva

地点:Possanco,葡萄牙

项目团队:Stefano Riva, Paulo Rocha

结构设计:SAFRE, Projectos e Estudos de Engenharia Lda.

项目面积:250平方米

项目时间:2006-2009

摄影:FG+SG-Fernando Guerra, Sergio Guerra

基于相同的追求,业主与建筑师就此住宅的设计目标达成了共识:一个毋庸置疑的当代设计,同时通过研究阿连特茹地区的传统建筑,建筑的性质以及最终形态都必须体现当地的特色。

这个小住宅的基地位于Possanco,Possanco是位于城市带与农业保护区之间过渡地带的村庄。广阔的平原向北延伸,一直到遥远而雄伟的阿拉比达山。萨多河稀疏分布的浅滩与大西洋勾勒出的地平线一起组成了如画的壮丽美景。

业主家庭希望能够拥有一处小小的度假屋,使他们可以逃离城市生活的压力,度过一个简单而轻松的周末。

建筑师认为值得借鉴科技时代以前建造的建筑。这些建筑大多是些小房子,有时屋顶不对称,阁楼一短一长几乎不成比例,坚实紧凑的形体与基地十分协调。长长的屋顶使房间在酷热的夏天与寒冷的冬天都十分舒适宜人。这些房子点缀在阿连特茹平原上,相似的用石灰粉刷的白色立面使它们近乎抽象画般纯粹,构成奇特而又让人赞叹的美丽画面。

建筑设计的第一个限制来自于三角形的地块,如果要满足建筑退线等规范要求,几乎没有可能将建筑做成其它形状。设计构思还要解决另一个矛盾:窗户应设置在北面以观赏景色,而业主希望能够尽可能地利用南向自然光照,同时避免受到建筑南侧街道上交通的干扰和行人的窥视。

为了解决这两个矛盾,并构成建筑的主要特征。所以,引入传统建筑中的一个元素:天井。

建筑师通过在图纸上确定退线等情况,得出了建筑体量。从侧面看,建筑的后墙达到了最大限高(两层),临街面则保持了可能的最低高度(一层)。在路人的眼中,建筑似乎有些变形,仿佛轴测投影图一般。

建筑体块中挖出了四个天井,一个位于建筑中心,一个位于起居室,一个在公共卫生间,还有一个靠近儿童房;这些天井可以最大限度地将南向的自然光照引入建筑中。

几乎所有的窗户都开在北面,这些窗户将人们的视线引向令人心旷神怡的美景。建筑师探讨了白色体块的表现力和建筑的抽象特征。建筑的总体形象是一个完整的白色体块,屋顶与外墙连成一体,从实体中挖出泛着浅蓝色反光的天井,这些细节都强化了建筑鲜明的个性。实际上,这座住宅几乎延续了阿连特茹传统建筑的一切特征:白色,光影效果,厚度/体块,质感。

室内空间设计遵从传统的“习惯”,保留双阁楼的体量,每个房间在比例以及进深上都进行了改变,空间渗透着沉静的气氛。在起居室的中间,厨房岛扮演着古代房间中壁炉的角色,厨房作为空间的中心,一切活动都围绕着它进行。


Architects: ARX - José Mateus, Nuno Mateus, with Stefano Riva

Location: Possanco, Portugal

Project team: Stefano Riva, Paulo Rocha

Structural engineering: SAFRE, Projectos e Estudos de Engenharia Lda.

Project area: 250 sqm

Project year: 2006 - 2009

Photographs: FG+SG – Fernando Guerra, Sergio Guerra

The cultural meeting point joining the house owners and the architects was based on their common interest: an undoubtedly contemporary architecture, but one whose nature and final expression would also be the outcome of a research of the paradigms figuring in the traditional architecture of the region, the Alentejo.

The implantation terrain of this small house, located in the village of Possanco, sets the transition area between the new urban strip and the protected agriculture zone. An extensive northbound plain ends far away at the splendid Arrabida mountain ridge. Sparse water spots of the river Sado spreading, and the Atlantic Ocean defining the horizon complete this scenario of a bold pictorial expression.

The owners wanted a small vacation house that allowed a casual and relaxed enjoyment of their weekend when escaping the urban everyday stress.

Our minds were for so long populated by images of the so-called popular architecture, produced before the technological era. They are small houses with sometimes asymmetric roofs, with one of the two garrets longer, almost disproportionate, reinforcing the compact aspect of volumes very much committed to the land where they are built. These long roofs make the houses cosy during the extremely hot summers and yet sober in the winter. The presence of these houses on the Alentejo plains, allied to the whiteness of their lime painting bringing out an almost abstract figure, compose portraits of a singular and surprising beauty.

The first relevant constraint is the triangular shape of the small lot which, when applying the legal distance measures, almost does not allow any formal alternatives. Conceiving the house had still to face a paradox: the most interesting views stand to the north and not south, where the windows should be placed in their quest for light. At south there is the street, traffic and passers-by whose look inside the house owners wanted to avoid.

These two aspects ended up being the key-features of the project and the solution would end being the introduction of yet another paradigm in traditional architecture: the patio

The volume is determined in blueprint by the regulated distances. In profile, the maximum height permitted is reached by the back wall (2 floors) and the front wall, facing the street, stays with the minimum height possible (1 floor). To the passer-by, the result is a house of deformed perspective, in axonometric projection.

In order to receive natural light to the south, we introduced in that long plan 4 patios: a central one, one in the living-room, one in the social toillets and a final one near the children's room.

Almost all situated north, the windows guide the views to the amazing landscape. We explored the expressiveness of the white block and its abstract personality. The totality of the volume would be white, roofs included, where the patios resemble bluish excavations, enhancing delicately the strong character of the house. In fact, the building is done almost exclusively with the Alentejo repertoire: white matter, light-shade, thickness/mass, texture.

Indoors, rooms occur in between "suggestions" of the traditional two-garret volume, and variations in scale and depth transform in each chamber the atmosphere of that inner world intentionally sober. In the middle of the living-room, the kitchen-island takes on the ancient role of the fire as a centre-piece of the home, around which everything comes to place.