法国,巴黎,H&E住宅/David Elalouf事务所

建筑师: David Elalouf Architecte with Guillaume Prognon, Fabrice Jactard, Kheang Tan, Damien Caron, Wen Kee H’su

地点: 法国,巴黎

客户: Paris Habitat OPH

项目面积: 7,260 平方米

预算: € 11,500,000

项目年代: 2005-2008

摄影: Stephan Lucas, David Elalouf

设计目标

这是位于巴黎的环境质量与可持续发展试点项目。设计凭借实现高性能的建筑外围护结构,对减少各种能耗的方法尤为关注,譬如水、热、电。本着同样的精神,这种能源选择法能够降低成本,在更加生态化的城市栖息地为人们提供优质的住所。

实施措施特别包括以下几点:

•外立面高效绝缘,

• 利用屋顶的太阳能电池板来加热生活用水,

•双向通风调节公寓内的空气质量,

•从露台回收雨水用于灌溉,

•绿化屋顶,

•在一楼,地面上的花园可促进雨水吸收,

•另外,尽管建筑基地起伏不平,仍然可从街道进入建筑;

•居民人手一册《绿色指南》,有助于关注可持续发展的用户发起参与式方法。

建筑基地与项目

在夏贝尔路(Rue de la Chapelle,古罗马时期的南北大道历史轴线)的路边,两个由RFF(法国铁路网)处获得的地块就位于Impasse du Gué路的两侧。

Impasse du Gué路被拓宽到18米(最初为8米),在巴黎东北部开启了崭新的城市开发进程。这条路为两块土地提供了便利:有两座建筑位于夏贝尔路一角的南侧,另外两座坐落在北侧。

Impasse路就好像是项目中心的一座大花园,种植着玉兰和竹子,并横向延伸,与建筑一楼的走廊融为一体。

在Impasse路南侧的两座建筑物之间,阳光可从西边穿过彩色立面,与北侧的建筑遥相呼应。

立面与材料、取向与季节的设计原理

“智能”、高效的外围护结构能减少各种能耗,譬如热能、电能……

根据立面在城区或主要方向上的相对位置,覆以不同的覆层材料:临街一面是白色抛光混凝土,场地内侧则为纤维水泥壁板或外挂铝板。

北侧与东侧的立面很光滑,安装有几组反射器,用来将阳光转向公寓室内。

宽敞的阳台面向南方交错布置

当光线入射角度较小时,凉廊面向西边

一切设计都为了能随着白天时间的变化而随时反射、吸收阳光。花园、阳台、凉廊和绿化屋顶也都随季节的更替而不断改变着布置与色彩。

民居

大多数民居都是双向设计,因此拥有自然交叉通风。在较高的楼层,人们能够清晰地欣赏到从圣心大教堂到拉德芳斯区的巴黎西部景色。单元楼的设计在人一生中的各个阶段——从青少年时期到老年——都能做出必要的调整:在自动化方面做出必要调整,以期让老年人得到最佳的家庭护理条件。有8间公寓是为残障人士而专门设计的:家庭自动化,所有通道、灯光和百叶窗都达到自动化控制水平。住所的舒适度也跟季节有关:无论从自然采光还是观景的角度来看,均须小心对待冬季或夏季的舒适度以及住所与外部环境的关系。

我们的可持续发展思想

我们的做法既考虑到了建筑设计,也考虑到了城市规划,结合了被动的过程和活跃的技术。与城市、人文和社会环境均密切相关的项目理念,主要是指与时间的关系:

•项目持续时间、结构的耐用程度、材料的选择时间,

•季节与天气的时间,住所的舒适度应适应季节性周期,给人们带来舒适的冬季和夏季。

•昼夜的时间,

•世代时间:反思所有年龄段人们的住房和发展水平。

这些都是我们思考的主要动机,也是指引可持续发展方法前行的明灯……


Architects: David Elalouf Architecte with Guillaume Prognon, Fabrice Jactard, Kheang Tan, Damien Caron, Wen Kee H’su

Location: Paris, France

Client: Paris Habitat OPH

Project Area: 7,260 sqm

Budget: € 11,500,000

Project Year: 2005-2008

Photographs: Stephan Lucas, David Elalouf

Objectives

This is a pilot operation in Paris in terms of Environmental Quality and Sustainable Development. Particular attention was paid to ways to reduce consumption of all order: water, heating, electricity, by implementing a high performance envelope. Along the same lines, the energy choices made allow reducing expenses, and a quality residential which provides for a more ecological approach habitat in the city.

The measures implemented include, in particular:

* A highly efficient insulation of facades outside,

* Heating of hot water provided by solar panels on the roof,

* A dual flow that controls the air quality inside apartments,

* Recovery of rainwater from terraces for irrigation,

* Green roofs,

* On the ground floor, gardens in the ground promote absorption of rainwater. On the other hand,

* buildings are accessible at street level despite uneven topography of the site;

* A “Green Guide”, given to each inhabitant, helps the user in terms of sustainable development to initiate a participatory approach.

The Site and Project

On the edge of the Rue de la Chapelle (historical axis of the Cardo of the Roman city), the 2 plots acquired from RFF (Reseau Ferré de France), are located on both sides of the Impasse du Gué.

The Impasse du Gué was enlarged to 18 meters (8 meters initially), initiating a new urban development in North Eastern Paris. It serves two lots; two buildings are located on the south grounds at the corner of Rue de la Chapelle, and two other buildings are located to the north.

The impasse is composed like a garden in the heart of the project, planted with magnolias and bamboo, it extends laterally with galleries on the ground floor of buildings.

Between the two buildings on the south side of the impasse, a colored fault lets in light from West. It echoes the one located North.

Principles of facades and materials, Orientations and seasons

The implementation of a “smart” and efficient envelope enables to reduce consumption of all kinds: heating, electricity…

Depending on their position relative to urban areas or cardinal orientation, the facades are covered with specific cladding materials: white polished concrete facing the street, fiber cement siding or aluminum cladding inside the plot.

* Smooth facades to North and East, with sets of reflectors to deflect the solar rays inside the apartments.

* Spacious balconies staggered to South

* Loggias to West, when the light is more horizontal

Everything is designed to reflect, absorb or reverberate sunlight depending on daylight hours. Gardens, balconies, loggias, and green roofs live and color according to the seasons.

Dwellings

The majority of dwellings are double-oriented and they have therefore natural cross ventilation. In the higher levels, they all have a clear view on the West of Paris from the Sacré-Coeur to La Défense. The units are designed to allow the necessary adjustments at all stages of life, from youth to old age: necessary adjustment in terms of automation to allow home support for seniors in the best possible conditions. 8 apartments are equipped for people with reduced mobility: home automation, automation of all access, lights, and shutters. The comfort of accommodation is also apprehended in all seasons: winter or summer comfort and the relation to the external environment is treated with care both in terms of natural lighting and views.

Our philosophy of Sustainable Development

Our approach is both architectural and urban. It combines passive processes and active techniques. The philosophy of a project intimately connected with its urban, human, and social environment, primarily refers a relationship to time:

* Time as duration, durability of structures, materials selection,

* Time of the seasons and weather, the comfort of accommodation to be adapted to the seasonal cycles, to a comfortable winter or summer comfort.

* Time of day or night,

* Generation time: rethinking housing and evolutivity to address all ages.

These are the main motivations of our thinking and what guides our sustainable development approach…