美国,底特律都会韦恩县机场北站/Gensler

底特律都会韦恩县机场(DTW)是美国第十二大繁忙的机场,充当着底特律的国际门户。新建的机场北站作为9•11事件之后设计建造的机场航站楼典范,提升了DTW的地位,成为世界上最现代化也最高效的机场之一。Gensler建筑师事务所在航站楼的设计上力求满足当今旅客的动态需求。新航站楼共有26扇大门,占地82.4万平方英尺,不但满足了严格的预算要求,还为具有价值意识的机场设施创建了崭新的基准。航站楼的线性设计为旅客节省了大量时间,同时也将为在地面滑行的飞机创造更加快速和有效的路径,以节省燃料和减少排入环境中的废气废物。稍后将为大家带来DTW北站的更多图片和信息。

建筑师:Gensler

地点:美国密歇根州Romulus

项目面积:850,000 gross square feet

项目年份:2008

摄影:Gensler

总承包商:Walbridge; Barton Malow Company (Construction Manager-at-risk)

参与设计建筑师:GHAFARI Associates LLC

合作建筑师:Hamilton Anderson, Scales

机场公共场所土木工程师:Tucker Young Jackson Tull; ABE Associates; BBF Associates; Somat

结构工程师:Thornton Tomasetti; Northwest Consultants, Inc.

机电工程师:Syska Hennessy Group; GHAFARI Associates LLC; Scales & Associates, Inc.; Sigma Engineering

登机区土木工程师:Reynolds, Smith & Hill, Inc.; Somat; Northwest Consultants, Inc.

行李搬运系统:BNP

消防栓、燃料与航空维修部:Burns & McDonnell; Custom Engineering; Northwest Consultants Inc.; Somat

特殊系统:Glover Associates

成本&日程安排:Hanscomb, Faithful & Gould

租借与零售业顾问:ACC

航站楼设计的最精彩之处是一个660英尺长的玻璃盒子,形成了入口大厅。这个玻璃盒子立在路边,每位旅客均须由此通过。它将自然光线引入登机柜台、取行李处和安检区。裸露的钢结构、鲜艳的色泽、充足的自然光线及现代建筑构件都能让人想起该地区一直以来的自信表现,无论是在应对挑战方面,还是为世界其他地区带来革新、效用和雄心壮志。

新建的北站既是始发站,也是终点站,而非经停站。为了有利于突出航站楼安全一侧的内部空间,大多数连接枢纽的航站楼在设计中都尽量减少其外部入口。而在此项目中,事实正好相反,建筑的主要设计都体现在外部。

北站配备有目前通用的终端设备(CUTE)来增强灵活性,既降低了成本,又能为旅客提供更多方便。候机室的房间能看到飞机场的情况,使用自然采光,数字显示器能及时让旅客了解最新的航班信息。因为如今的旅客都很依赖个人电子设备,航站楼里也提供了充足的插座。

大部分航站楼的便利设施都经过美国运输安全管理局(TSA)的筛查,如今旅客的主要候机时间是在这里度过的。大厅两端的餐饮区安装有引人注目的照明设备,并拥有自然采光,也能看到外面的景色。航站楼的线性设计使得飞机能直接将舱门拉离滑行道,连接候机室,与其他飞机互不干扰。线性结构解决了传统机场常见的交通堵塞状况。这种高效而传统的设计为航空运营商带来了能源效益,也节省了时间,同时还通过尽量减少滑行道的交通量提高了机场的安全性。

为缓和旅客通过安检的压力,Gensler事务所在TSA检查站的关口采用了木纹和地毯这种温暖的饰面。为了进一步体现出这些入口位置的亲密特质,天花板的高度设计得很低,整体效果是成为一处门户,而不是检查站。整个航站楼都采用了大胆而充满活力的蓝色,以表明各个入口位置:从侧面的入口到连接大门与飞机的喷气式登机桥。独特的照明设备也突出了重要的连接处,如餐饮区的低空悬挑的球状体,以及十字路口的垂直管状照明灯,抵达的旅客在十字路口能从主航站楼直接前往取行李处,并乘坐陆地交通工具。

新航站楼重新利用了拆毁的戴维航站楼及附近酒店的大量废料。混凝土作为旧建筑的主体材料被粉碎成砾石,用于道路和斜坡的铺设。废旧建筑各个部分的钢铁也被提炼出来,得到了重新利用,而以前酒店的管道设施被捐赠给了“人道之家”的转售商店。

由于DTW对环境的卓越贡献,它的建设获得了“自愿机场低污染排放(VALE)”计划的资助,总计近510万美元,这笔资金由联邦航空局(FAA)提供,用于支持机场建设,减少新建北站项目中的碳排放量。VALE的资金将被用来建设直接向停在每个新登机口的飞机提供燃料、温控空气和辅助电源的基础设施。这三个系统共同发挥作用,届时移动燃料卡车、车载辅助电源装置(APU)或可移动地面柴油发电机组将无用武之地,从而减少了燃料消耗以及相关的排放。

总而言之,在设备的40年使用期限之内,北站的基础设施在VALE资金的支持下将有望减少向环境中排放超过418吨的一氧化碳、409吨臭氧前身物质、366吨氧化氮、66吨二氧化硫、42吨挥发性有机化合物以及6.4吨微粒。


The 12th-busiest airport in the United States, Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW) serves as a global gateway to Metro Detroit. Opened as a model of post 9/11 terminal design, the airport’s new North Terminal is enhancing DTW’s status as one of the most modern and efficient airports in the world. Gensler designed the terminal to meet the dynamic needs of today’s travelers. The 26-gate, 824,000-square-foot terminal met stringent budget requirements, and establishes new benchmarks for value-conscious airport facilities. A tremendous time saver for travelers, the terminal’s linear design will also create a faster, more efficient path for taxiing aircraft that will save fuel and reduce environmental emissions. More images and information about DTW’s North Terminal after the break.

Architect: Gensler

Location: Romulus, Michigan, United States

Project Area: 850,000 gross square feet

Project Year: 2008

Photographs: Gensler

General Contractor: Walbridge; Barton Malow Company (Construction Manager-at-risk)

Associate Architect: GHAFARI Associates LLC

Supporting Architects: Hamilton Anderson, Scales

Landside Civil Engineers: Tucker Young Jackson Tull; ABE Associates; BBF Associates; Somat

Structural Engineers: Thornton Tomasetti; Northwest Consultants, Inc.

MEP Engineers: Syska Hennessy Group; GHAFARI Associates LLC; Scales & Associates, Inc.; Sigma Engineering

Airside Civil Engineers: Reynolds, Smith & Hill, Inc.; Somat; Northwest Consultants, Inc.

Baggage Handling Systems: BNP

Hydrant Fueling and Aircraft Support: Burns & McDonnell; Custom Engineering; Northwest Consultants Inc.; Somat

Special Systems: Glover Associates

Cost & Schedule: Hanscomb, Faithful & Gould

Concessions and Retail Consultant: ACC

The highlight of the terminal’s design is a 660-foot-long glass box that forms a gateway foyer. Set over the curb, this glass box is the one space through which every passenger passes. It ushers natural light into the check-in, baggage claim and security screening areas. Exposed structural steel, vivid color, abundant natural light and modern building components recall the confident manner in which this region has always addressed its challenges, offering innovation, utility and ambition to the rest of the world.

The new North Terminal is an origin and destinations terminal, as opposed to a connecting hub through which passengers travel without emerging. Most connecting hub terminal buildings minimize design at their external entrances in favor of highlighting internal spaces on the secure side of the terminal. The opposite is true here; the big architectural statement occurs at the curb.

The North Terminal is equipped for common use terminal equipment (CUTE) to provide enhanced flexibility that both reduces costs and provides added passenger convenience. Hold rooms feature views of the airfield, natural daylight and digital displays alerting passengers to any potential flight updates and boarding information. Because today’s travelers are dependent upon personal electronic devices, ample electrical outlets are available.

Most of the terminal’s amenities are located past Transportation Security Association (TSA) screening, where today’s travelers spend the majority of their waiting time. Food courts at each end of the concourse feature dramatic lighting, access to daylight and exterior views. The terminal’s linear design enables aircraft to pull directly into their respective gates off the taxiway independently of one another. The linear configuration eliminates traffic jams typical of airports that feature alleys, piers or banjos. This efficient, conservative motion offers airline operators energy benefits and time savings, while enhancing airport safety by minimizing taxiway traffic.

To mitigate the stress of passing through security, Gensler designed the TSA screening checkpoints as gateways featuring warm finishes such as wood grain and carpet. To further the intimate nature of these thresholds, ceiling heights are low, and the overall effect is one of a gateway rather than a checkpoint. Bold, vibrant blue is used consistently throughout the terminal to indicate entry points, from the entrances at the curb to the jetbridges joining each gate to planes Unique lighting fixtures then signal important junctions, such as low-hanging globes in the food courts and vertical pipe-like lights at the intersection where arriving passengers turn away from the main terminal to head toward baggage claim and ground transportation.

Much of the waste from the demolished Davey terminal and adjacent hotel was recycled for use in the new terminal. Concrete, which made up the bulk of the old buildings, was crushed into gravel and used for roads and ramps. Reusable iron and steel was extracted from various parts of the old structures and recycled while plumbing fixtures from the former hotel were donated to Habitat for Humanity’s resale shop.

In recognition of DTW’s commitment to environmental excellence, DTW was awarded a Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) grant, totaling nearly $5.1 million by the FAA to support the airport’s plan to reduce operational emissions at the new North Terminal. Funding from the grant will be used to support the construction of infrastructure to deliver fuel, temperature-controlled air, and auxiliary electrical power directly to aircraft parked at each new boarding gate. Together, these three systems will eliminate the need for, and emissions associated with, mobile fuel trucks, on-board auxiliary power units (APU’s) or diesel-powered protable ground power units— thus reducing fuel consumption and associated emissions.

Altogether, the North Terminal infrastructure supported by the VALE grant is expected to spare the environment from more than 418 tons of carbon monoxide, 409 tons of ozone precursors, 366 tons of nitrogen oxides, 66 tons of sulfur dioxide, 42 tons of volatile organic compounds, and 6.4 tons of particulate matter over the equipment’s 40-year lifespan.