瑞典,斯德哥尔摩,Bjorkhagen的圣马克教堂 / Sigurd Lewerentz

在建筑领域消失了十多年后,Sigurd Lewerentz因在斯德哥尔摩Björkhagen设计了圣马可教堂而又重新出现在人们面前。他在教堂设计中获胜使他回到了建筑艺术中,而他对建筑材料的恰当运用使圣马可教堂获得了国际关注。

Lewerentz通过设计竞赛赢得了圣马可教堂的委托任务。他与其他四名建筑师收到邀请,为新教堂提出设计构想。Lewerentz提出了许多想法,最终在1956年被选定为新教堂的设计者。

圣马可教堂位于瑞典斯德哥尔摩的郊区。基地上的两座建筑矗立在一片桦木林中,与周围的郊区环境联系较少。西侧的建筑靠近主路,但仍有树木作为缓冲。两座建筑之间有一个庭院,庭院中央有一个水池。庭院有进入教堂的通道,其标志就是一条木质柱廊,这条木质柱廊与砖结构建筑相分离,突出了二者之间的不同。建筑砖墙独自耸立,展示了Lewerentz对材料运用的精通。

进入教堂要通过木质门廊,然后就进入了光线昏暗的门厅。进入们听后,游客会被砖块所包围。在教堂内部,砖块被用作地板、墙壁和天花板。砖常常被认为是一种简单、无趣的材料。20世纪早期,瑞典的很多公共建筑就是使用砖建造的。Lewerentz没有对基本的砖块进行切割或塑形以使其更具趣味性,而是通过应用不同的砂浆厚度、巧妙设置或者将砖块分开,使这种平庸的构件变成受人欢迎的材料。

基地上的两座建筑使用了相同颜色的轻质砂浆。西侧的建筑包括办公室,而东侧的建筑内容纳了入口门厅、房间、大厅和教堂中殿。砖块在两座建筑中创造了曲面和平面墙体。在东侧的建筑中,砖块地面呈斜面撞,随着游客进入教堂逐渐下降,而在头顶的天花板上却形成拱顶。

圣马可教堂于1960年完工,它是Lewerentz重操旧业之后设计建造的第一座建筑,但不是最后一座。随着圣马可教堂竣工并得到人们的认可,Lewerentz又继续建造了其他建筑,其中最著名的是在他1975年去世之前完成的克利潘的圣彼得教堂。在第一个杰作圣马可教堂获得成功后,Lewerentz又在圣彼得教堂的设计中继续使用了砖这种材料。

建筑师:Sigurd Lewerentz

地点:瑞典斯德哥尔摩

项目年份:1956-60

参考:Continuity in Architecture, Sigurd Lewerentz and a Material Basis for Form

摄影:Flickr: jmpt, Wikimedia Commons: Holger.Ellgaard


After over a decade of absence from architecture, Sigurd Lewerentz reappeared with the creation of St. Mark’s Church in Björkhagen, Stockholm. His winning design for the church brought him back to the art of building, and his apt control of materiality brought the St. Mark’s Church international attention.

Lewerentz received the commission for St. Mark’s Church through a competition. He was invited, along with four other architects, to propose ideas for the new church. Lewerentz submitted multiple ideas and was ultimately chosen as the designer for the new church in 1956.

St. Mark’s Church is located in a suburb of Stockholm, Sweden. The two buildings on the site are set amongst a grove of birch trees with little connection to the surrounding suburbs. The western structure is located closer to the main road, but still buffered by the trees. A courtyard is formed between the buildings with a pool in the center. From the courtyard is the entrance to the church, marked by a wooden portico. This wooden portico is detached from the brick structure, emphasizing the difference between the two. The brickwork in the buildings stands separately to show Lewerentz’s mastery of the material.

The church is entered through the wooden portico to where one is deposited into a dimly lit foyer. Brick surrounds the visitor. Within the church, brick is used to make floors, walls, and ceilings. The material was, and often still is, seen as a simple, uninteresting material. It was used to make many public buildings in Sweden in the early 20th century. Lewerentz did not manipulate the basic unit by cutting or shaping it to add interest. Instead, he worked with the mortar thickness and the placement or separation of the units to transform the banal unit into something to be appreciated.

Both buildings on site are made with the same color of brick with a lighter mortar. The western building contains offices while the eastern building holds the entrance foyer, rooms, great hall, and nave of the church. The brick unit creates curved and straight walls in both buildings. In the eastern building it slopes down as the floor to lead one into the church, while it also vaults in the ceiling above.

St. Mark’s Church was completed in 1960. It was the first building designed and built by Lewerentz since his hiatus from the profession, but it was not his last. With the completion and resulting recognition of St. Mark’s Church, Lewerentz went on to build other projects, most notably St. Peter’s Church in Klippan, before his death in 1975. He continued his investment in brick materiality into the design of St. Peter’s Church, which followed in the success of his first brick masterpiece at St. Mark’s Church.

Architect: Sigurd Lewerentz

Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Project Year: 1956-60

References: Continuity in Architecture, Sigurd Lewerentz and a Material Basis for Form

Photographs: Flickr: jmpt, Wikimedia Commons: Holger.Ellgaard