中国,顺德市,第一人民医院/ HMC Architects

顺德市第一人民医院由HMC建筑事务所设计,其目的是创建一座可持续发展的医疗建筑,这种思路对于该地区的建筑来说还比较陌生。该项目荣获了2011年美国AIA建筑学院奖医疗设计类未建成建筑奖的冠军,内部运用了绿色设计元素使建筑性能达到最佳。此外,这些元素营造了一个康复环境,促进了社区的拓展服务,并且凭借文化的独特性在不断地发展。这栋标志性的建筑蕴含了当地的历史价值,也利用了当地的建筑产业/建筑材料。稍后将呈现更多的图片以及建筑师提供的设计描述。

施工地点位于占地133544平方米的开放区域内,北部边界有一条运河,南部边界为新城保留了一条绿化带。作为这座新城第一批主要的建筑结构之一,这家医院的园区将会推动已规划好的城市社区的发展,直接与规划完毕的城市交通、道路、公共设施和建筑系统连在一起。作为该地区最大的公共建筑群,医疗中心以其开放式园区的规划和四通八达的室外广场/花园空间向人们传达出了其城市化的表现方式。

顺德是一座历史悠久的城市,以绵延的崇山峻岭、众多的园林和纵横交错的运河而闻名。赤陶屏障和水元素作为建筑的主要组成部分,建筑师们对它们的使用延续了顺德赤陶制造业和水体利用的传统。园区的体块和朝向以这座历史名城为参考,采用的交通模式源于新规划的城市基础设施。建筑所占用的空间尽可能地紧凑,这使得开放空间达到最大,同时也考虑到了未来扩建的需要。

施工地点的规划清晰且富有逻辑性,这使得现场施工的效率达到最高,同时也最大程度地增加了未来发展的灵活性。四片不同的区域为住院病人、门诊病人、后勤物品和工作人员而建,并排布置,分别满足了大众区域喧闹、私人区域安静的需求。建筑场地的入口被明确地分隔开来以便于人们找寻道路。

建筑师考虑到3000名患者进入门诊就医时会造成客流高峰,所以建立了一条巨大的长廊,包含了挂号、等待就医、餐饮和零售方面的服务。动态的直线形“生态长廊”是规划的主要部分,它将园区内所有的部分连接在一起,形成了一个和谐的整体。长廊是这个充满活力的24小时医疗设施内的自然通风的室内外空间,患者们的大部分候诊时间都是在这里度过的。康复花园遍及整个园区之内。垂直花园、屋顶花园以及观景平台使每一个建筑体块都拥有了绿色空间和自然区域。

医疗规划策略将先进的西方医院设计方案进行了转化,使之能够适合中国的本土建筑,营造了一个具有前瞻性眼光的治疗环境。在这个项目中控制感染是创新的焦点,因为这个地区曾是SARS的高发区。在园区规划方面,彼此相连而又独立的部门建筑使得在疫情蔓延的过程中能够控制感染,并具有检疫隔离的功能。另一个创新领域便是在介入平台上,位于建筑西侧的介入平台无菌车和污物车都较少,其设计目的是能够降低材料和人之间交叉感染的风险。

住院病房位于两栋高楼里,其中一栋楼有1200个床位,另一栋有800个床位。住院病房的布置考虑到能够独立管理,同时与上面楼层之间以天桥相连,这使得工作人员在分担工作以及运输材料时能够更加便捷。

项目中可持续发展的设计倡议促使当地政府将该项目作为中国首批绿色试点医院之一。将基本的可持续发展设计实践作为重点,整体的建筑性能将会大大超越当地能源规范的规定。

以下为一些主要的可持续发展策略:

Some of the major sustainable strategies are:

——可持续发展的施工区域:开放空间达到最大为75%(其中40%有植被覆盖),超过了当地要求的50%的标准。公共交通系统也被带到了园区里,便于病人和工作人员通勤。生态湿地和大型水体是用来收集和管理雨水的。

——最佳建筑朝向:所有的建筑物都为东西朝向并列布置。这些细长的建筑拥有最大程度的采光,为工作人员和病人呈现出周围的风景以及整个城市风光。

——最佳室内环境质量:最佳的建筑朝向和体积设计使自然采光和通风达到最大,减少了太阳辐射得热量,同时利用了可再生能源。湿润的空气通过自然通风、烟囱效应和冷梁系统进行除湿。

——蓄热体、遮阳屏以及地热能(地下空气管道)是调节室内温度的被动手段。“生态长廊”围墙上的陶瓦可以用作遮阳屏和蓄热体,白天能够减少得热量,晚上可以供暖。

——在设计和可再生能源方面的创新:建筑立面系统是建筑外围结构在日光曝晒之后映射形成的。在光伏一体化建筑(BIPV)中设计了立面遮阳屏、天窗和屋顶系统,每年能够产生1500 Mwh的可再生能源用来补充能源消耗的主要部分。

——本地材料:陶瓦外部面板作为主要的建筑外围护材料,是在当地制造的,同时顺德市在历史上也是以赤陶工业而闻名的。

建筑师:HMC Architects

地点:中国顺德

项目功能:2,000 beds, inpatient towers, acute care facility, 6000 daily visit outpatient facilities, medical research building, cancer center, and infectious disease building

占地面积:2,400,000 SF

施工时间:尚未建成,预计2012年夏季竣工


The design for the First People’s Hospital by HMC Architects aims to create a sustainable healthcare architecture, an idea new to the practice of the region. The project, which was the winner of the national AIA Academy of Architecture for Health 2011 Unbuilt award, features green design elements which optimize building performance. In addition, these elements create a healing environment, further its mission for community outreach, and evolve with cultural uniqueness. Its iconic architecture engages the local historical values and building industry/material. More images and architects’ description after the break.

The site is a 33-acre open field with a canal on its northern border and a green belt reserved on its southern border for the new city. As one of the first major structures of the new city, this hospital campus will be the impetus to the planned urban community in which it resides, tying directly to the planned urban transportation, road, utility, and building systems. Being the largest public building complex in the area, the medical center expresses its civic representation through its open-campus plan and accessible outdoor plaza/garden spaces.

The city of Shunde is a historic city known for numerous mountain ridges and gardens and canals. The use of terracotta screen and water elements as the main building components continues Shunde’s tradition of terracotta manufacturing and water. The massing and orientation of the campus make reference to the historical city and engage traffic patterns from the proposed urban infrastructure. The building footprints are designed to be as compact as possible to maximize open space and allow for future expansion.

The clear and logical organization of the site optimizes site efficiency, while maximizing flexibility for future development. The four distinct site zones¬—inpatient, outpatient, support and staff—are juxtaposed to correspond to the public/noisy side and private quiet side respectively. The access points into the site are clearly separated to ease wayfinding.

Taking into account the high peak influx of outpatient visits of 3,000 patients, a grand atrium is created to accommodate registration, waiting, food service and retail functions. This dynamic linear “eco-atrium” is the main organizational spine that connects and harmonizes all components of the campus. It is a naturally ventilated indoor/outdoor space in a vibrant 24-hour medical facility where visitors will spend most of their waiting time. Healing gardens are located throughout the campus. The vertical gardens, roof garden, and viewing terraces bring green spaces and nature to each block.

The medical planning strategies translate advanced western hospital design to accommodate Chinese local practices, creating a forward-thinking healing environment. Infection control is a focus of innovation for this project as this region was the epicenter of SARS. In terms of campus planning, the connected but independent departmental building allows infection control and quarantine capacity during an epidemic event. Another area of innovation is in the interventional platform where western interventional platform planning—with less sterile and soil traffic—is proposed to reduce the risk of cross contamination of material and people.

The inpatient beds are located in two towers with 1,200 beds in one and 800 beds in another. This inpatient arrangement allows for management independency while the bridging connection on the upper floors provides flexibility for staff sharing and material transport.

The sustainable design initiative of this project has prompted local government to designate this project as one of the first pilot green hospitals in China. With emphasis on fundamental sustainable design practices, the overall building performance will vastly exceed local energy regulation.

Some of the major sustainable strategies are:

- Sustainable site: Open space is maximized to 75% (40% of which is vegetated) which exceeds local zoning requirement by 50%. Public transportation system is brought onto the campus for patient and staff commuting. Bioswale and large water body are proposed to harvest and manage storm water.

- Optimal building orientation: All buildings are juxtaposed in east-west orientation. These slender building blocks maximize daylight and allow panoramic views to the landscape and cityscape for both staff and patients.

- Optimal indoor environmental quality: The optimal building orientation and massing maximize natural day-lighting and ventilation and reduces solar heat gain while capturing renewable energy. Humid air is dehumidified through natural ventilation, stack effect, and chilled beams.

- Thermal mass, solar screens, and geothermal energy (underground air tunnels) are used as passive means in regulating indoor temperature. Terracotta on the “eco-atrium” wall is used as sun screen and thermal mass that reduces heat gain during the day and provides warmth at night.

- Innovation in design and renewable energy: The building façade systems are derived through mapping of the building envelope’s solar exposure. A building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV) is designed into the façade shading screen, skylight, and roofing system to generate 1,500 Mwh of renewable energy annually to supplement a major portion of the energy consumption.

- Local material: Terracotta exterior panels, as the main building envelope material, is manufactured locally; the City of Shunde is historically known for its terracotta industry.

Architects: HMC Architects

Location: Shunde, China

Program: 2,000 beds, inpatient towers, acute care facility, 6000 daily visit outpatient facilities, medical research building, cancer center, and infectious disease building

Size: 2,400,000 SF

Date: Unbuilt, estimated completion summer 2012