美国,洛杉矶,加州交通运输局第七区总部 / Morphosis

建筑师: Morphosis – Thom Mayne

地点:美国加利福尼亚州洛杉矶南主街100号

项目团队:Morphosis Team

甲方:State of California, Department of General Services

施工年份:2002-2004

建筑面积:1,200,000 gross sq ft

摄影师: Liao Yusheng, Roland Halbe

加州交通运输局第七区总部覆盖了洛杉矶的一整块街区,是优秀设计计划在加利福尼亚州建成的首座建筑。两个不同的部分呈L形布局,整座建筑面向街道,形成入口通道和公共广场。两座建筑中体量较大的一座有13层高,距离主街155英尺,而较小的一座有9层,优雅地从另一座楼边延伸出来。

Morphosis事务所的建筑风格的突出特点是建筑表皮在美学和功能上的机械特性。智能型建筑表皮以特殊的方式对环境做出反应,能够根据温度和光照条件进行开放或关闭。这样就形成了一个可以不断改变的立面,在强光照的白天可以关闭,使空间具有更多私密感,在夜晚人们可以将其打开,观赏夜景。

加州交通运输局第七区总部楼体的整个南立面安装了光伏电池,为立面提供了遮蔽,避免正午时分的阳光直射,同时还能为整座建筑生产5%的能量。与主街相连的立面覆盖有独特的表皮系统——用穿孔铝板覆盖双层玻璃。铝板在庭院中继续延伸,在建筑与广场相接处形成了一个雨篷和过渡空间。

Morphosis事务所在加州交通运输局第七区总部项目的另一个绿色创新设计是跳站运行升降电梯,在其加速垂直运动时能够储存能量。这种交通流线设计的主要目的是为员工争取更大的中间聚集空间,鼓励雇员使用楼梯。

建筑在南主街的一侧有一个图形标志“100”,标志的透明与不透明层以及二维和三维图形的交错形成了公共空间。公共空间位于一层,包括展览馆、大型公共艺术作品、零售商店和一间自助餐厅。

艺术家Keith Sonnier的作品被引入到室外大厅,创造了一种名为Motordom的轻质设施。该设施使用了总共半英里长的红色、蓝色氩气灯管和霓虹灯管,这些水平管精心布置,能让人联想起加尼福尼亚州高速公路上的车灯形成的光线条纹。这种设计十分适合加利福尼亚的交通运输建筑,不同的悬挑和挤压结构的也明显地体现出了运动的设计构思。

加州交通运输局第七区总部在建筑领域之外也非常著名,它的设计与建造过程在《历史频道:现代奇迹》节目中播出过四次。这扩大了关于这个项目的建筑知识范围,因为它对建造大型建筑提出了独特的挑战。这座建筑之所以著名还因为它是Thom Mayne的重要作品,他因这一创新项目于2005年被授予普利策建筑奖。


Architects: Morphosis - Thom Mayne

Location: 100 South Main St., Los Angeles, California, United States

Project Team: Morphosis Team

Client: State of California, Department of General Services

Construction Years:  2002-2004

Building Area: 1,200,000 gross sq ft

Photographs: Liao Yusheng, Roland Halbe

Covering an entire block of downtown Los Angeles, the Caltrans District 7 Headquarters was the first building in California to be commissioned under the Design Excellence Program. Two distinguishable masses create an L-shaped plan which opens the architecture to the street, allowing for an accessible and public plaza. The larger of the two volumes rises 13 stories and is set back 155 feet from Main Street, while the smaller four story volume elegantly extends from its counterpart.

A striking quality that distinguishes Morphosis architecture is the mechanical nature of the skins, both in their aesthetics and in their function. The intelligent skin reacts to its environment in striking ways as it opens and closes depending on temperature and sunlight conditions. This creates a constantly shifting facade that is closed and therefore more private during the light of the day and becomes open and transparent during the night.

Photovoltaic cells cover the entire southern facade of the Caltrans building which acts to shield the facade from direct sunlight during peak hours all the while generating 5% of the building's energy. A distinct skin system covers the facade bordering Main Street, where perforated aluminum panels cover a double skin layer of glass. The layer of panels continues over the courtyard, establishing a canopy and creating a transition space where building meets plaza.

Another green initiative taken by Morphosis in the Caltrans District 7 Headquarters is the skip-stop elevators which conserve energy while speeding up vertical circulation. A main motive in this circulation scheme was to increase intermediate gathering spaces for employees, and to encourage employees to take the stairs.

A graphic sign marks the building as 100 South Main Street where layers of opacity and transparency as well as 2D and 3D typography interplay to designate the space to the public. The public spaces are located on ground level and include an exhibition gallery, a large public art piece, retail stores and a cafeteria.

Artist Keith Sonnier is credited for his addition to the outdoor lobby, creating a light installation titled Motordom. Using a half-mile of argon and neon tubes in red and blue, the carefully arranged horizontal tubes are reminiscent of the streaks of headlights on California freeways. This is very fitting for the California Transportation Building, and similar ideas of movement become apparent through various cantilevers and extrusions.

The Caltrans 7 building is recognizable to individuals outside of the realm of architecture, as the design and construction process was documented over four episodes of Modern Marvels on the History Channel. This broadened the range of architectural knowledge about the project, as it presented the unique challenges of constructing the large building. It is also known for it's importance in the work of Thom Mayne, who was awarded the 2005 Pritzker Prize with the help of this innovative project.