美国,德克萨斯州,沃斯堡市,经典回顾:沃斯堡现代美术馆/安藤忠雄

建筑师:安藤忠雄

地点:美国德克萨斯州沃斯堡市

现场建筑师:Kendall-Heaton Associates

景观设计师:SWA Group

结构工程师:Thornton-Tomasetti/Ellisor-Tanner Engineers

承包方:Linbeck Construction Corp.

项目面积:10.96 acres

项目年份:2002

摄影: Liao Yusheng

“只有人类存在,空间才会富有生气。因此,建筑所能起到的重要作用,以及建筑内部空间的作用,都是为了鼓励人与人之间的互动,人与绘画、雕塑所呈现出的思想之间的关系,而最重要的还要数人与人之间的交流。”

沃斯堡现代美术馆作为日本建筑大师安藤忠雄的典型作品,拥有简洁的几何形式,与自然环境相融,选用的材料种类极少。五座长长的平顶展馆仿佛漂浮在1.5英亩(约6070.2平方米)的水池上方,波光粼粼,让人不禁联想到安藤其他的项目。

美术馆仅采用了混凝土、钢材、铝材、玻璃和花岗岩,周围的水池刚好能倒映出其优美的外形。葱翠的树林与小山丘包围着美术馆,这正是安藤建筑作品的典型特色。通过其纯粹的设计,美术馆成了最令世人瞩目的现代艺术品之一。

周围环境优美一如美术馆中展示的艺术品,在巨大窗户的映衬下,艺术品与展览空间达到了水乳交融的境地。玻璃与水恰到好处地互相呼应,平静的池水倒映出空间,恰如玻璃反射着水面。

“将玻璃当作墙壁,就有了实际存在的屏障,它可以作为一种保护罩,与外部分隔开,但从视觉上却没有内外之别。还有从水面反射出的光线透过玻璃照到内部的墙上,表明建筑的边界似有还无。”

混凝土的使用表明了安藤对于这种材料独有的平坦表面与尖锐而规则的边缘情有独钟。大规模的平面墙体更有助于人们了解大楼的基本结构。与通常环绕在安藤建筑四周的自然环境相比,这两个元素的影响更深远。沃斯堡的美术馆表现出了建筑师对于边界最细致的关注,他使用这种材料创造出了一座仿佛漂浮在周围水池上方的建筑物。

光线也成了美术馆设计的关键,尤其是散射与反射的自然光线。悬臂式浇筑混凝土屋顶支撑着引入自然光线的线性天窗和通风窗。五个Y形柱子高达40英尺(约12.2米),支撑屋顶板,并且成了美术馆的象征。

该美术馆毗邻路易斯·康的金贝尔美术馆,以及菲利普·约翰逊的阿蒙·卡特美术馆。在53000平方英尺(约4923.9平方米)的展览空间内,收藏了超过2600件重要的现代与当代国际艺术品。


Architect: Tadao Ando

Location: Fort Worth, Texas, United States

Site Architect: Kendall-Heaton Associates

Landscape Architect: SWA Group

Structural Engineer: Thornton-Tomasetti/Ellisor-Tanner Engineers

Contractor: Linbeck Construction Corp.

Project Area: 10.96 acres

Project Year: 2002

Photographs: Liao Yusheng

“Space will only have a life when people enter it. So the important role architecture can play, and that space plays within that architecture, is to encourage an interaction between people, between people and the ideas being presented in the paintings and sculpture, and most importantly between people themselves.”

The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth exemplifies the work of Japanese architect Tadao Ando through it’s simple geometry, incorporation of the natural environment, and very minimal material selections. Five long, flat-roofed pavilions appear to float atop the 1.5-acre reflecting pond, which is reminiscent of other Ando projects.

Constructed with only concrete, steel, aluminum, glass and granite, the museum is perfectly reflected in the surrounding pond. Beautiful trees and hills enclose the museum, which is typical of Ando’s architecture. Through its pure design, the museum has a striking presence as a modern work of art.

The environment becomes as beautiful as the artwork that the museum displays, as it is heavily intertwined with the display spaces through large windows. The glass and water are very complimentary, as the still pond reflects the spaces just as glass reflects the water.

“By using glass as a wall, physically there is a barrier, a protection from the outside, but visually there is no boundary between outside and inside. There is also the light that comes off the water through the glass that indicates a lack of boundary and can make its presence felt on the wall.”

The use of concrete indicates Ando’s passion in planes and sharp, clean edges that the material allows. The massive planar walls help tell of the building’s basic structure. Contrasted with the natural environment that typically surrounds his architecture, the two elements become even more dynamic. The art museum of Fort Worth shows the finest degree of emphasis on the boundary; using the materials to create architecture that seems to float on the pond that surrounds it.

Light also became key in the design of the museum, with an emphasis on both diffused and reflected natural light. Cantilevered cast-concrete roofs support linear skylights and clerestory windows, which accomodate natural light. Five Y-shaped columns standing 40 feet high support the roof slabs, and have become a symbol of the museum.

The museum is located near Louis Kahn’s Kimbell Art museum, as well as the Amon Carter Museum by Philip Johnson. It houses more that 2,600 significant works of modern and contemporary international art in it’s 53,000 square feet of gallery space.