立陶宛,火葬场/ Architectural Bureau G.Natkevicius + Partners

建筑师: Architectural Bureau G.Natkevicius & Partners G. Natkevičius, A. Rimšelis

地点:立陶宛Kėdainiai,Metalistų大街

竣工时间:2011

建筑面积:775 sqm

结构工程:JSC Constr, Adomas Sabaliauskas/ JSC Konstruktoriu Cechas, Kęstutis Matijošaitis

照明设计:Promodus IO

摄影: G.Česonis

这是在立陶宛建造的第一个火葬场。建立火葬场的想法可追溯至两次世界大战期间,但当时的火葬场只有熔炉,用来减少考纳斯医院的医疗废物。随着火葬传统日盛,立陶宛人在拉脱维亚和波兰都开始使用火葬服务。

为在立陶宛建造第一个火葬场开路并非易事。尽管热情很高,但是直到2011年才克服了天主教思想、政治方面的伪善行径、缺乏适当的环境及其他法律带来的种种不便。作为Kedainiai火葬场所有人的医生和环保主义者终于显示了他们的实力。

建筑地点位于立陶宛中部的工业城镇Kėdainiai,这里有31000名居民。建筑选址位于工业园区。新建筑周围都是杂乱无章、毫无美感的工业建筑:烟囱中浓烟滚滚的甘蔗工厂和肥料工厂。所以建筑的环境甚至看不到一丝神圣之感。

在设计伊始,我们就分析了其他国家的经验,这些具有启发性的实例包括柏林的特雷普托火葬场、德累斯顿火葬场以及安藤忠雄在日本岐阜县设计的火葬场。这些实例都让人印象深刻,建筑宏伟而庞大,拥有振奋人心的场景,但Kedainiai的火葬场却是一个占地仅770平方米的小型建筑,要想创造神圣之感都让人几乎无从下手。

不甚美观的工业环境引发了如下设计想法:创造一处简洁到甚至有苦行意味的场所。这是一座单层混凝土建筑,外部与内部均采用了混凝土表面,创造出统一之感。为了与周围的工业环境保持距离,建筑被设计为封闭式的,如同一个性格内向的人。

甚至连能引起糟糕感受的烟囱都隐藏在建筑的体量之内。设计的主要目标是创建日式的内部庭院,入口处前方栽种了一棵随风摇曳的小榆树。院子创建了一个私密的空间,这也是进入该建筑的聚集区域。在室内看去,院子起到了将空间扩展的作用。它如同情感过滤器,缓解人们的紧张情绪与压力。

火葬场的室内功能区如下:庭院、休息大厅、两个最终处理大厅、火葬大厅、火化设备房与烟囱。室内表面以四种材料建造:混凝土、胶合板、铝框玻璃与白色灰泥。苦行风格的内部能让逝者的家人专注于悲伤肃穆的情绪,不会受到任何色彩或细节设计的干扰。每一个人以及他的脸庞都会成为室内设计非常重要的一部分。

三种等级的现代火化和空气净化设备均符合由著名德国公司IFZW制定的最严格的环境要求。建筑内部装备齐全,可实施大型火葬。


Architects: Architectural Bureau G.Natkevicius & Partners – G. Natkevičius, A. Rimšelis

Location: Metalistų st., , Lithuania

Completed: 2011

Building Area: 775 sqm

Structural Engineering: JSC Constr, Adomas Sabaliauskas/ JSC Konstruktoriu Cechas, Kęstutis Matijošaitis

Lightning: Promodus IO

Photographs: G.Česonis

 

This is the first crematorium in Lithuania. The idea to build a crematorium was born in the interwar period, but at that time only furnace to reduce medical waste in Kaunas hospital was built. Increasing cremation traditions Lithunians use cremation services in Latvia and Poland.

To make a path for the first crematorium in Lithuania wasn’t easy. Despite the big enthusiasm, the catholic mind and political hypocrisy, the lack and imperfections of environmental and other laws were overcome only in 2011. The owners of Kedainiai crematorium, doctor and environmentalist, showed the strength.

Building site- industrial town Kėdainiai with 31000 inhabitants in the center of Lithuania. The area for the building was chosen in industrial park. New building is surrounded by a chaotic, unaesthetical industry: sugar mills, fertilizer factories with smoky chimneys. So the surroundings don’t even have a smell of sacred place.

At the beginning of design process we analyzed the experience of other countries: inspiring examples of crematoriums such as Treptow crematorium in Berlin, Dresden crematorium and crematorium designed by Toyo Ito in Japan, Gifu. These examples were impressive, large monumental buildings with inspiring scenario however crematorium in Kedainiai- small building of 770 m2 and there were almost no place to create sacred script.

Unaesthetical industrial environment provoked to create minimalistic and even ascetic scenario. It is one storey concrete building which external and internal quality and unity was created with concrete surfaces. In order to distance itself from the industrial environment the building was designed closed like a human introvert.

Even the chimney, which cause bad feelings, is hidden in the volume of building. The main goal of the script- to create the inner Japanese style courtyard with a growing pendulum elm before the main entrance. Yard creates an intimate space, the accumulation zone before entering the building. Being inside the yard visually expands the space. It creates like an emotional filter to reduce human’s experience of stress.

Crematorium interior scenario: courtyard- lobby with resting area- two final disposition halls- cremation hall, cremation equipment room with chimney. The interior is created with four surfaces: concrete, wood veneer, glass with aluminum and white plaster. The ascetic inside allows families to concentrate on a solemnly sad hour with no interference of a colors and details. Every man and his face become very important part of the interior.

Three levels of modern cremation and exhaust air cleaning equipment, conforming to the strictest environments requirements was produced by known German firm IFZW. The building is fully equipped for two line cremation.