加拿大,温哥华植物园游客中心/ Perkins+Will

erkins+Will建筑事务所设计的温哥华植物园游客中心志在取得目前世界上最严格的可持续认证计划——生态建筑挑战(Living Building Challenge)的认证。项目从形式与功能上均包含了环境与社交方面的设计目标。该项目的室内外空间,从地面到天棚,犹如波澜起伏的景观蜷伏在建筑地块上,并且为植被生长提供了一个巨大的空间,因此重新定义了这片建筑与景观共存的土地。建筑物具有众多主动与被动系统,能重新利用场地的可再生资源及其自身生成的垃圾,这也成了它的主要特色。

在本地特有的兰花的启发下,游客中心的外形在建筑与景观之间找到了一种平衡——由“起伏的绿色‘花瓣’屋顶构成,漂浮在夯土和混凝土墙的上方”。屋顶和地面通过可促进植被生长的坡道连接,坡道如同一面浑然天成的绿色屋顶。这是一座以社区服务为宗旨的植物园,建筑内部包括咖啡馆、图书馆、志愿者设施、花园商店、办公室,以及为会议、研讨会、讲座和其他私人功能而设置的教室。

为了获得“国际未来生活研究机构”的生态建筑挑战认证,Perkins+Will建筑事务所必须使用天然的和机械系统,让它们协同创造一座对环境影响很小的建筑,包括对建筑场地与周边基础设施的影响。这意味着在设计时,建筑师必须方方面面都考虑到。

游客中心采用了现场采集的可再生能源,采集方式如地热水井、太阳能光伏发电和太阳能热水管,以达到按年度计算的净零能源。该建筑主要以木材建造,屋顶更是采用了胶合木梁柱构架。雨水经过收集、过滤,作为灰水在建筑内部使用。而废水则依靠“现场生物反应器进行处理,然后释放到一个新的专门过滤场地,再流入花园”。

可开合的屋顶顶点的玻璃圆孔也许就是该建筑最为令人惊叹、也最引人注目之处了。它从屋顶景观中探身而出,在室内创造了一处中庭空间,在天然木材的映衬下,中庭洋溢着温暖的橘黄色。这个玻璃圆孔不仅仅能改变外观,更是一个引人注目的创举。它能促进自然通风,也起到了太阳能烟囱的作用。它还具有铝质吸热设备的功能,将阳光转化为对流的能量,在整个空间内形成空气流动。颜色较深的表面既能吸收更多的阳光,也能提供更多的通风。

Perkins+Will建筑事务所在设计建筑的外形与功能方面主要有以下几点考虑:

可持续的场地:建筑所在的位置不能破坏花园周围名贵的树木、灌木丛和其他植物。屋顶花园也取代了因为该建筑而流离失所的植被,有助于使植物重新与建筑相融合。

用水效率:雨水得到收集与重新利用,而灰水与废水都是在现场设施中进行处理的。

能源效率:太阳能热水管的设计目标是生产176000千瓦时的能源;光伏板的设计目标是生产11000千瓦时的能源,还要安装地热交换系统,为施工现场提供必要的能源,从而实现净零能源使用。

材料和资源:Perkins+Will建筑事务所从人们的健康出发,根据碳足迹、回收能力和生命周期来选择材料,为求获得最适用、最耐久的建筑部件。

美与灵感:该建筑的设计不仅为了使植物园与周围环境合而为一,还想通过各种建筑系统展示对环境问题的考虑,促进全社会理解人类活动和自然生态系统之间的平衡关系。

建筑师:Perkins+Will

地点:加拿大温哥华

竣工时间:August 2011

项目预算:$21.9 million CAD

施工预算:$14.4 million CAD

项目面积:17,000 SM (183,000 SF)

建筑面积:1,765 SM (19,000 SF)

可持续性目标:Living Building Challenge LEED® New Construction v 1.0 Platinum Registered Visitor Centre


Perkins+Will‘s VanDusen Botanical Garden Visitor Centre in Vancouver, BC is designed to meet the Living Building Challenge, the most rigorous set of requirements of sustainability.  Formally and functionally, it encompasses the goals of environmentally and socially conscious design.  The building is an undulating landscape of interior and exterior spaces rising from ground to roof level and providing a vast surface area on which vegetation could grow, thus reoccupying the land on which the building sits with the landscape.  The building also features numerous passive and active systems that reuse the site’s renewable resources and the building’s own waste.

More photos after the break, including a video about the project!

The form of the Visitor Centre finds a balance between architecture and landscape – composed of “undulating green roof ‘petals’ that float above rammed earth and concrete walls”, inspired by a native orchid.  The roof and ground plane are connected by ramps that promote vegetation – a self-made green roof.  The building functions as a community oriented center for the Botanical Garden; it has a cafe, library, volunteer facilities, garden shop, offices, and classroom space for meetings, workshops, lectures and private functions.

In order to achieve recognition for the International Living Future Institute’s Living Building Challenge, Perkins+Will had to use natural and mechanical systems that could collaborate to create a building with a low impact on the environment that includes the its immediate site and the infrastructure to which it is connected.  This means that all systems were taken into account when designing this facility.

The Visitor Centre uses on-site, renewable sources, such as geothermal boreholes, solar photovoltaics and solar hot water tubes, in order to achieve net-zero energy on an annual basis.  The building is primarily constructed out of wood with the roof constructed out of a glulam post-and-beam construction.  Rainwater is collected, filtered and used as greywater for the building.  The blackwater is treated by “an on-site bioreactor and released into a new feature percolation field and garden”.

The operable glazed oculus may be the most stunning and apparent feature that identifies the building.  It protrudes from the landscape created by the roof and produces an atrium space in the interior with a warm orange glow, reflected by the natural wood.  This oculus is not just a formal – and eye-catching – move.  It assists with natural ventilation; operating as a solar chimney. It also features an aluminum heat sink, which converts sunlight into convection energy, providing air movement through the space.  The darker surfaces that absorb more sunlight provide even more ventilation.

The considerations highlighted by Perkins+Will guided the design of form and function for the building are the following categories:

Sustainable Site: The building is situated to avoid destroying the rare trees, shrubs and plants around the garden.  The roof garden also replaces the vegetation displaced by the building itself and helps reintegrate vegetation into the architecture.

Water Efficiency: Rainwater is collected and reused, while greywater and blackwater are treated in an on-site facility.

Energy Efficiency: Solar hot water tubes are designed to produce 176,000 kWh; PV panels are designed to produce 11,000 kWh and a geo-exchange system is also implemented to provide the energy necessary for the site to keep it at net-zero energy use.

Materials and Resources: Perkins+Will chose materials according to their health, carbon footprint, ability to be recycled and their individual life cycles to choose to most appropriate and long-lasting components.

Beauty and Inspiration: The building is designed not only to inspire a celebration of the Garden and landscape, but to invest and show consideration for the environment through building systems and promote a social understanding of the balance between human activities and natural ecosystems.

Architect: Perkins+Will

Location: Vancouver, BC, Canada

Completion: August 2011

Project Budget: $21.9 million CAD

Construction Budget: $14.4 million CAD

Project Area: 17,000 SM (183,000 SF)

Building Area: 1,765 SM (19,000 SF)

Sustainability Targets: Living Building Challenge LEED® New Construction v 1.0 Platinum Registered Visitor Centre