阿富汗,玛利亚•格拉齐亚•库图利小学/ 2A+P/A + IaN+ + MaO

建筑师: 2A+P/A, Gianfranco Bombaci, Matteo Costanzo; IaN+ – Carmelo Baglivo, Luca Galofaro, Stefania Manna; Ma0 – Massimo Ciuffini, Ketty Di Tardo, Alberto Iacovoni, Luca La Torre with Architect Mario Cutuli

地点:阿富汗赫拉特,引支勒区Kush Rod

结构:Studio Croci Associati Ing. Federico Croci

合作设计方:2A+P/A – Valeria Bartolacci, Antonino Crea, Domenica Fiorini, Maxim Mangold, Valentina Morelli, Consuelo Nunez Ciuffa; IaN+: Juliette Dubroca, Simone Lapenta; Ma0: Manfredi Mazziotta, Mario Cutuli, Marco Bordone

竣工时间:April 2011

占地面积:2,000 sqm

学校面积:650 sqm

摄影:Courtesy of IaN+

项目成本

施工成本约15万欧元,其中包括花园的建造费用。玛利亚•格拉齐亚•库图利基金会提供所有资金。意大利日报《晚邮报》将会捐赠50台电脑,卡塔尼亚省政府将出资建造学校操场。来自威尼斯的室内装饰企业Colorificio San Marco免费为建筑的所有墙面涂漆。

起源

2001年,意大利《晚邮报》驻米兰的著名记者玛利亚•格拉齐亚•库图利在阿富汗遭到一群武装分子对其车队的伏击,不幸遇难。

悲剧发生之后,她的家人建立了玛利亚•格拉齐亚•库图利基金会,旨在支持那些饱受战火或自然灾害摧残的国家改善教育状况,推动社会发展,提高妇女和儿童的生存质量,尤其是在阿富汗。在玛利亚•格拉齐亚的文章中所描绘的优美风景,从一开始就给了我们开发这一概念的建议。

项目的一个关键之处就是研究创新教育空间,来取代这些战后紧急重建的典型学校建筑,另外将外部空间设计为一种“绿色教室”,尝试以当地的技术和建筑材料为主进行建设。

Assignment

In 2001 Maria Grazia Cutuli, a prominent Italian journalist correspondent for the Milan-based daily Corriere della Sera, was murdered by a group of gunmen who ambushed her convoy in Afghanistan.

概念

这所小学坐落在一片干旱的土地上,棕色土壤是这里的一大特征。很少有建筑能脱离这片尘土飞扬的平坦土地,就好像由围墙环绕着的封闭岛屿。北方的地平线在深色的兴都库什山脉的围绕下清晰可见。

第一个挑战就是研究一种平面布局,能够满足学校的功能需求,与这个令人回味的空间相融。经过几次会议研究大量的草图和研究模型,工作组选择了一种枢纽连接布局:一系列包含教室和连接走廊的相连盒子。唯一的两层体量是图书馆,充当村庄的象征性地标。出于安全考虑而设置的边界墙与盒子体量一起界定了一系列复杂的空间和体量。室内外空间的设计均有助于界定教育环境。有的教室带有小型的私密户外空间,孩子们可以待在这里,在大约50棵树木带来的阴凉之中玩耍或者放松。主庭院位于建筑的环绕之中,这里是学校最重要的关联空间。学校内还有不同的菜园,在围墙的保护下作为教室的自然延伸。

实现

项目破土动工之后,进展非常迅速。阿富汗工人仔细遵照我们的图纸工作,但与我们的施工过程不同。我们一般是先建立构架,然后建造墙体包围内部空间,而阿富汗是一次建造所有的元素,譬如基础、柱子、墙壁,最后才加建混凝土梁和屋顶。在某种程度上,他们的施工方法类似于意大利在二战后的重建方法。每个星期我们都会从工程负责人、工程师Taheri那里收到施工报告、照片和更新的工作进度。相距遥远还能控制所有细节问题并非易事,因此在2010年11月底,工作组的三名成员亲临建筑现场指导工程收尾工作。

材料

建筑物的结构为钢筋混凝土框架,由实心砖封闭。所有的材料和应用技术均根据当地情况来采用。所有的外立面和边界墙将被涂以深浅不同的蓝色饰面层。这是阿富汗人常用的颜色,这个项目的目的就是创建一个在周围环境中清晰可见的地标。教室的方向和外立面的设计能保证适量的光照和自然通风。窗框为铁制,涂上红色,与蓝色的墙体形成了对比。


Architects: 2A+P/A, Gianfranco Bombaci, Matteo Costanzo; IaN+ – Carmelo Baglivo, Luca Galofaro, Stefania Manna; Ma0 – Massimo Ciuffini, Ketty Di Tardo, Alberto Iacovoni, Luca La Torre with Architect Mario Cutuli

Location: Kush Rod, Injil District, Herat, Afghanistan

Structures: Studio Croci Associati Ing. Federico Croci

Collaborators: – Valeria Bartolacci, Antonino Crea, Domenica Fiorini, Maxim Mangold, Valentina Morelli, Consuelo Nunez Ciuffa; IaN+: Juliette Dubroca, Simone Lapenta; Ma0: Manfredi Mazziotta, Mario Cutuli, Marco Bordone

Completion: April 2011

Site Area: 2,000 sqm

School Area: 650 sqm

Photographs: Courtesy of IaN+

Project Costs

Construction cost is about 150.000 €, including expenses for the realisation of the garden. Maria Grazia Cutuli Foundation has provided for all the funds. The Italian daily newspaper Il Corriere della Sera will donate fifty computers and the Provincial Administration of Catania is going to grant the realisation of the school playground. The colour fabric Colorificio San Marco from Venice, donated the whole amount of paintings.

Assignment

In 2001 Maria Grazia Cutuli, a prominent Italian journalist correspondent for the Milan-based daily Corriere della Sera, was murdered by a group of gunmen who ambushed her convoy in Afghanistan.

After this tragic event, her family established the Maria Grazia Cutuli Foundation that aims to support programs on the fields of education and social promotion, for children and women, in those countries devastated by war or natural calamities, especially in Afghanistan. The beauty of the landscape, described in Maria Grazia’s articles, gave us initial suggestions for developing the concept.

The research for an innovative educational space as an alternative to those models related to the after-war reconstruction emergencies has been one of the key points of the project as well as the design of the outside space as a ‘green classroom’ and the attempt to use local technologies and construction materials mainly.

Concept

The school stands on a dry landscape characterized by the brown colour of the soil. Few constructions come out from this flat and dusty territory, as enclosed islands surrounded by border walls. To the north the skyline is defined by the dark Hindu Kush Mountains.

The first challenge has been the research of a layout able to match functional needs and evocative spaces. After several meetings supported by lots of sketches and study models, the workgroup chose an articulated layout: a series of linked boxes containing both the classrooms and the connection corridors. The only two-floors volume is the library that acts as a symbolic landmark for the village. The border walls, which were required for security reasons, define, together with the boxes, a complex sequence of voids and volumes. Both external and internal spaces contribute in the definition of the educational environment. Among the classrooms there are small and intimate outdoor spaces where kids can stay, play and relax under the shadow of about fifty trees. The main courtyard, embraced by the building represents the most relational space of the school. Inside the school area and protected by the walls, there are also different vegetable gardens as a natural extension of the classrooms.

Realization

After the first stone setting, the works started immediately and proceeded very quickly. Afghan workers carefully followed our drawings but using different construction processes from ours. We use to build the structural frame and afterwards the walls enveloping the spaces. While Afghani construct all the elements at once, foundation, pillars, walls and only at the end the concrete beams and roof. In a certain way their construction methods are similar to the ones used in Italy for the reconstruction after the Second World War. Every week we received from the work’s director, the engineer Taheri, reports, pictures and updates on the percentage of realised works. It was not so easy to control all details at such a distance and thus, at the end of November 2010, three members of the workgroup visited the site to define the last finishing.

Materials

The structure of the building is a reinforced concrete frame, closed by solid bricks. All the materials and the applied technologies have been defined according to the local uses. All the façades and the border walls will be painted using different tones of blue. This colour is usually used in Afghanistan and the aim of the project is to create a blue landmark visible from the surroundings. The orientation of the classrooms and the design of the façades have been thought to assure the right amount of daylight and natural ventilation. The windows have been designed as iron frames, painted in red to make contrast with the blue of the walls.