阿拉伯联合酋长国,阿布扎比Al Bahar大厦的感应立面/ Aedas

据阿布扎比未来一周的天气预报显示,这一周日照十分强烈,气温稳定保持在100华氏度(约37.8摄氏度)以上,决无下雨的可能。在这样极端的天气条件下,即使建筑师将环境设计作为他们的首要任务,也得面对一场硬仗。不要担心沙子会损害建筑的结构整体性,如果不妥善解决环境问题的话,酷热和眩光可能会让舒适的室内环境成为泡影。在为阿布扎比新建的这对大厦中,Aedas Architects建筑师事务所就设计了一种灵敏感应立面,灵感来源于一种传统的伊斯兰格子遮阳装置——“mashrabiya”。

这两座145米高的大厦立面上的Masharabiya 遮阳系统由Aedas的计算设计团队开发,完工于2012年6月。该团队采用参数化方式来制作可操纵的几何形状的立面板,能够对应日晒的具体情况和随一年当中时间的不同而产生变化的入射角度来模拟操作。

遮阳屏起到了幕墙的作用,位于建筑外表皮之外两米处,为独立的框架。每个三角形面板外都覆有一层玻璃纤维,并经过编程对太阳的运动做出反应,从而减少太阳得热和眩光。晚上,所有的遮阳屏都将关闭。

Aedas事务所副主席Peter Oborn说:“在晚上这些遮阳板将全部折起来,遮阳系统完全停止运作,所以你可以见到更多的建筑立面部分。随着第二天清早太阳从东方升起,建筑东侧的mashrabiya系统将全部开始闭合,太阳光线开始绕着建筑移动,然后mashrabiya的整个垂直板条都将随着太阳而移动。”

据估计,这种遮阳屏将会减少太阳得热50%以上,从而减少建筑物空调需要的能量。另外,遮阳屏还能过滤光线,让建筑师在选择玻璃饰面上有了更大的灵活性。Oborn补充道:“它(遮阳屏)让我们能够使用更自然的有色玻璃,这种玻璃可让更多的光线入射,人们可以拥有更好的视野,减少对人造光的需求。这是对古老技术的现代化应用,也反映了阿联酋渴望在该地区的可持续发展方面起到带头作用。”

由于该项目的可持续工程、对文化的敏锐把握与城市设计法,这两座大厦被高层建筑与城市住宅委员会授予2012年“高层建筑创新奖”(请点击链接查看我们以前报道的其他获奖作品)。

来自Wilkinson Eyre Architects建筑师事务所的评委Chris Wilkinson解释说:“Al Bahar大厦的立面以计算机控制的方式获得了最优化的太阳能与光学条件,这种规模是前所未有的。另外,该建筑表皮的表达方式似乎已深刻扎根于其文化背景下的建筑之中。”

该奖项还认可了建筑形式、结构、系统与可持续设计策略相结合的必要性与重要意义。


A quick glimpse at the upcoming weather for Abu Dhabi will show a week of intense sunshine, temperatures steadily above 100 degrees Fahrenheit with 0% chance of rain.  In such extreme weather conditions, even architects listing environmental design as their top priority are up against a tough battle.  Never mind that the sand can compromise the structural integrity of the building, the intense heat and glare can render a comfortable indoor environment relatively impossible if not properly addressed.  For Abu Dhabi’s newest pair of towers, Aedas Architects have designed a responsive facade which takes cultural cues from the “mashrabiya”, a traditional Islamic lattice shading device.

Completed in June 2012, the 145 meter towers’ Masharabiya shading system was developed by the computational design team at Aedas.  Using a parametric description for the geometry of the actuated facade panels, the team was able to simulate their operation in response to sun exposure and changing incidence angles during the different days of the year.

The screen opperates as a curtain wall, sitting two meters outside the buildings’ exterior on an independent frame.  Each triangle is coated with fiberglass and programmed to respond to the movement of the sun as a way to reduce solar gain and glare.  In the evening, all the screens will close.

“At night they will all fold, so they will all close, so you’ll see more of the facade.  As the sun rises in the morning in the east, the mashrabiya along the east of the building will all begin to close and as the sun moves round the building, then that whole vertical strip of mashrabiya will move with the sun,” said Peter Oborn, the deputy chairman of Aedas.

It is estimated that such a screen will reducing solar gain by more than 50 percent, and reduce the building’s need for energy-draining air conditioning.  Plus, the shade’s ability to filter the light has allowed the architects to be more selective in glass finished.  ”It (the screen) allows us to use more naturally tinted glass, which lets more light in so you have better views and less need of artificial light.  It’s using an old technique in a modern way, which also responds to the aspiration of the emirate to take a leadership role in the area of sustainability,” added Oborn.

For the project’s sustainable engineering and sensitive cultural and urban approach, the towers were awarded the 2012 Tall Building Innovation Award (be sure to check out our previous coverage on the additional winners here) by the Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

“The façade on Al Bahar, computer-controlled to respond to optimal solar and light conditions, has never been achieved on this scale before. In addition, the expression of this outer skin seems to firmly root the building in its cultural context,” explained Awards Juror Chris Wilkinson of Wilkinson Eyre Architects.

Such an award acknowledges the importance of the necessary integration of architectural form, structure, systems, and sustainable design strategies.