奥地利,陵园与灵堂 / Schneider + Lengauer

建筑师: Schneider & Lengauer

地点:奥地利东蒂罗尔,Hopfgarten in Defereggen

项目年份:2011

摄影: Kurt Hoerbst

奥地利Defereggen的Hopfgarten陵园位于这个小村庄的中心,这里不仅是一个哀悼与向逝者告别的地方,也是日常聚会场所。市政当局为了扩张该地区,并且在陵园新修建一处灵堂,特别发起了一次设计竞赛。这种在社会大众眼中具有象征意义的场所不但关注死亡问题,同时还能根据市政当局的要求为参加告别仪式的哀悼者提供一个“肃穆而亲密”的建筑结构。此外,他们还希望新建的灵堂能和谐融于围绕着后巴洛克风格的教堂而建造的原有陵园。一块巨大的天然石墙将陵园与街道分隔开,而建于上世纪30年代的教堂的带顶拱廊将场地的北面封闭。

沿着由巨大石墙围绕的一个斜坡可通往新建的灵堂,灵堂位于铺平的教堂前院。人们可从厚重的对开门进入灵堂的内部空间。墙壁上覆盖着落叶松木镶板,奠定了室内的基调,而靠两侧设置的简易长凳借鉴了传统的乡村“客厅”模式,可作为聚会与(大)家族联络感情的场所。充足的天然光线透过玻璃窗洒在四面墙的上方。山峦、森林与天空给逝者家属带来了慰藉。令人振奋的清晨第一缕阳光穿过东侧狭窄的窗缝落进房间。在黑天时间较长的冬季和夜晚,嵌入木镶板的照明装置为室内带来光明,因而也借用了灯塔的形状:为最后的旅程提供一抹光亮。

灵堂为钢筋混凝土结构,立面采用毛石砌筑。落叶松木条固定在墙壁的凹槽处,可承载周围木结构中的屋脊与椽子。砌体墙体覆层覆盖着屋顶结构,而屋顶表皮采用了阿尔卑斯山地区的传统屋顶。


Architects: Schneider & Lengauer

Location: Hopfgarten in Defereggen, East Tyrol, Austria

Project Year: 2011

Photographs: Kurt Hoerbst

Situated in the heart of the village, the cemetery of Hopfgarten in Defereggen is not only a place for mourning and farewell, but also one of daily encounters. For the expansion of the area and the construction of a wake room, the municipality initiated an invited peer review. Death and mortality should fill a symbolic place in the community, which would, at the same time, also provide a “worthy and intimate” framework for the farewell rituals of mourners, according to the demand of the municipal clients. Furthermore they wanted a harmonious integration of the wake room into the existing cemetery, which is arranged around the late-baroque church. A massive natural stone wall divides the cemetery from the street, while a covered arcade, with the chapel from the 1930s, closes the site to the north.

A ramp, surrounded by massive stone walls, leads to the newly built wake room on the paved church forecourt. One enters the wake room’s interior space through a heavy, two-winged gate. The walls, panelled with larch wood, define the room and simple benches along the sides refer to the tradition of the peasant “parlour” as a place of sitting together and (large) family communication. Abundant natural light flows through the glazing in the upper part of all four walls. Mountains, forests and the sky give solace to the bereaved. Comforting rays of the morning sun fall into the room through the narrow window aperture on the eastern side. In dark winter months and at night, interior lighting built into the wood panelling provides luminance – thereby referencing the shape of a lighthouse: light for the final journey.

The wake room is a reinforced concrete structure with a facade of quarry stone masonry. Clamped into recesses in the walls are larch wood bars that bear the ridges and rafters for the surrounding wood structure inside. Block wall cladding covers the roof structure, while the traditional Alpine roof serves as roof skin.