荷兰,阿姆斯特丹,Puur文化馆 / emma Architecten

建筑师: emma Architecten

地点:荷兰阿姆斯特丹

项目年份:2012

摄影:John Lewis Marshall, John van Helvert

迪默丹堡是“阿姆斯特丹防线”的一部分。最近这座古老的防御建筑被列入联合国教科文组织的世界遗产名录中。迪默丹堡因此也需要进行重新规划,这样游客以及对这栋古老建筑感兴趣的人便能够置身其中一饱眼福。现存的沙坑和碉堡的警卫室都经过了修复。原先规划的斜坡和堡垒得到了重建,自然保护计划也已启动。emma Architecten建筑事务所在这片区域内设计了全新的文化馆,使这栋堡垒重新焕发了生机,同时也满足了大型活动、旅游和餐饮的需要。

Puur文化馆是专为公司的社交活动和一些私人活动而设计的区域,在这里可以举办诸如产品发布会、集会以及企业活动和婚礼等。而到了周日和夏季时分,Puur文化馆便会让人有种宾至如归的感觉:无论老人还是孩子都可以在这里享受室内外的时令美食、品酒、欣赏剧院的文化节目、聆听美妙的音乐。

Puur文化馆恰好建在以前士兵军营的位置上,并将军营的区域作为文化馆的建造基础。地基周围的木墙向上弯曲保护着建造地点,同时又环绕在项目周围。高低起伏的斜坡形态和周围的景观激发了建筑师的设计灵感。透过倾斜墙面中的开口向外望去,枪炮平台的景观和Pampus岛的走向便可以一览无余,Pampus岛是后防线中的第二道堡垒。

沿岸而建的炮台——迪默丹堡是阿姆斯特丹防线的一部分,它原来围绕首都而建,建于1880年至1914年之间。该防线距离阿姆斯特丹15公里,包括46个堡垒和炮台、堤坝以及水闸,水闸控制着泛滥的河水,保护阿姆斯特丹的土地免受洪灾。自1996年以来,阿姆斯特丹防线已经列入国家历史遗迹的名单中,同时也列入了联合国教科文组织的世界遗产名录之内。在阿姆斯特丹的防线之内,迪默丹堡尤为特别,因为它是一座仅仅拥有两个沿海炮台的堡垒。

Stadsherstel Amsterdam NV公司于2006年成为迪默丹堡的主人。他们想在堡垒内建立一处文化场所。在这里游客们可以了解到古堡的变迁,了解到阿姆斯特丹防线的历史。同样,庭院区域和建筑物也应该和活动完美融合在一起,例如露天剧场、讲座和音乐演奏会等。为此,建筑师得出的设计方案便是修复现有的建筑、土方工程以及周围的自然景色,重建原有的警卫室。然而该项计划却遭到了咨询委员会的拒绝,因为历史建筑无法重修,这栋碉堡需要增添一些新的元素去展望未来,而不是再次回首过往。阿姆斯特丹的emma Architecten建筑事务所承接了这项设计任务。

那么既然这片区域需要保护旧有的结构,又需要进行修整,现在究竟该如何创造新的元素呢?Emma开始探寻既能够设想未来又可以回首过往的设计方法:既能够表达出光明的未来,同时又传递出强烈的沧桑感。他们在堡垒的历史中探寻线索,在它周围的特殊景观中找寻答案。

建筑师在设计堡垒的内部和周围区域时采用了“圆圈法则”。这要求在大炮的射程内,所有的建筑物必须用木材建造。当敌人逼近时,所有的建筑物都能被炮弹击中,使敌人无处藏身。厚度仅为60cm的底座可以用石头建造。在这片潮湿的区域内,所有的木质房屋都不会矗立很长时间。在设计中Emma选取了以前士兵军营的区域,这片区域是在考古研究中发现的。在确切的建造位置上,建筑师将原有的规划又向下延伸了60cm,而非向地面上扩张。这样游客们便会站在这片下降的、带顶的堡垒地面上。环绕基地平面周围而建的木墙向上弯曲以保护建造地点,并环绕在所需的空间项目周围。

周围景观的特点也呈现在木质墙面的装饰当中。荷兰工程师在堤岸、堡垒和壁垒方面的设计成果是以高地、斜坡和曲线的军事精确度为特征的,它们可以将部队和大炮战略性地隐藏起来。木质的立面前后倾斜,弯曲在项目周围并依偎在堡垒深处的建筑物旁边,与景观相互呼应。游客们可以从墙面的开口部分和一层的平台同时看到土方工程、沙坑和天空,视野开阔,一览无余。高度和开口部分的差异形成了动态的景观,并逐步持续地显现出来,人站在建筑中观赏外面的风景,外面的人也在津津有味地观赏建筑。

在文化馆的下方,庞大的地下室建在了主土方工程的内部。这使得后部入口可以呈现在文化馆的外部并通向马路。因此文化馆四周美景环绕。同时技术装置也融合在了土方工程当中。在文化馆中安装了空气能热泵,而污物从Helofyte过滤器排放。木质立面排成一排,由40000多块WRC天然瓦板组成。立面会随着方位的变化而自然而然地改变颜色。无论立面朝着天空还是俯瞰大地,面向南方还是北方,顺着主导风向还是靠近树木,周围的自然景观和元素都会使其呈现出独特的外观。


Architects: emma Architecten

Location: Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Year: 2012

Photographs: John Lewis Marshall, John van Helvert

Fort Diemerdam is part of the “Stelling of Amsterdam’. This historical defence line was recently put on the UNESCO world heritage list. This ignited a re-development plan for Fort Diemerdam to make it accessible to visitors, tourists and those interested. The existing bunkers and fortress guardian house have been restored. The original plan of slopes and strongholds is restored and a nature conservation program has started. Emma architects has designed a new pavilion in which and from which Puur Produkties revives the fortress again with events, tours and catering.

Paviljoen Puur can be exclusively reserved for corporate and private events such as product presentations, meetings, corporate events and weddings.On Sunday and in the summer Paviljoen Puur is a place where everyone feels at home: young and old can enjoy indoor and outdoor atmospheric seasonal meals, tastings and a cultural program with theater and music.

Paviljoen Puur is located on the exact site of a former soldiers shelter. The footprint of this shelter was taken as the basis for the pavilion. Around its base a wooden wall curves up to protect the site and encompass the program. The design is inspired by the undulating forms of the slopes and the surrounding landscape. Openings in the sloping wall give views of the gun bays, a terrace and the direction of the island Pampus, the next fortress of defence line.

The coastal battery Fortress Diemerdam is part of the Stelling of Amsterdam, a former defence line around the capital, which was constructed between 1880 and 1914. The defence line consists of 46 forts and batteries, dikes and sluices at about 15 kilometres from Amsterdam, that by means of inundation would protect the lands of Amsterdam. Since 1996, the Stelling of Amsterdam, already a state listed monument, features on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Fort Diemerdam is particular within the Defence Line of Amsterdam, because it is one of only two coastal batteries.

Stadsherstel Amsterdam NV became the owner of Fort Diemerdam in 2006. They wanted to establish a Cultural Location in the fort. In such a Location visitors get information about the fort, about the Defence Line of Amsterdam. Also, the grounds and buildings would be highly suitable for events such as open air theater, lectures and music. To this end, a plan was developed to restore existing buildings, earthworks and the surrounding nature and rebuild a former guard house. This plan was rejected by the advisory board, there would be no historicist building rebuilt, something new was needed for the fort to look again towards the future, instead of back into the past. Emma architects from Amsterdam took on this commission.

Now, how to create something new in a place where it is fixed that the old is protected? Emma started looking for ways to simultaneously imagine the future and the past. To convey both an air of positive futurism, as well as a strong sense of the past. They found leads in the history of the fort and in the special landscape that surrounds her.

In and around the fort site the ‘kringenwet’ (law of circles) applied. This required that all buildings within the firing range of the guns must be constructed out of wood. When the enemy would approach, all buildings were shot so they could no longer hide. A plinth of just 60 centimetres was allowed to be built from stone, All wooden houses would not last long in this wetland area. Emma brought the footprint of a former soldiers shelter, which emerged in an archaeological research, into the design. At the exact spot, the historical plan is pushed 60 cm into the ground, instead of above it. Visitors will sit slightly lowered, sheltered in the fortress grounds. A wooden wall curves up around this base plan to protect the site and encompass the required spatial program.

The wooden wall is draped along the features of the surrounding landscape. The Dutch engineers work of embankments, bastions and ramparts is characterized by the military precision of elevations, slopes and curves which could strategically hide troops and artillery from view. The wooden facade leans forward and backward, bends around the program and nestles the building deep in the stronghold. It plays with the landscape. The openings in the wall and the terrace on the first floor offer visitors a focused view of the earthworks, the bunkers, the sky and let your gaze to the horizon. The differentiation of heights and openings creates a dynamic play looking and being looked at, of gradual and continuous disclosure.

Underneath the pavilion a large basement is built inside the major earthwork. This allowed the rear entrance to be realized outside the pavilion, towards the road. Thus the pavilion addresses the landscape on all sides. The technical installations are also integrated in the earthwork. The pavilion has been equipped with air heat pumps and the sewage discharges on a helofyte filter. The wooden facade is lined with 40,000 WRC natural shingles. Due to the variable differences in orientation, the facade will naturally change colour as differently. Depending its inclination towards the sky or the earth, orientation on south or north, on prevailing wind direction or close to the trees; in time, the surrounding nature and the elements will define the appearance of the building.