斯洛文尼亚,欧洲空间技术文化中心/ Dekleva Gregoric Arhitekti + SADAR + VUGA + OFIS architects + Bevk Perovic Arhitekti

建筑师:Dekleva Gregoric Arhitekti + SADAR + VUGA + OFIS architects + Bevk Perovic Arhitekti

地点:斯洛文尼亚Vitanje

占地面积:5,175 sqm

客户:KSEVT, Vitanje Community and Ministery of Culture

面积:2,505 sqm

年份:2012

摄影: Tomaz Gregoric, Miran Kambic

Bevk Perovic项目组:Matija Bevk, Vasa Perovic, Gerrit Neumann, Andreja Pikelj, Gonzalo Piqueras, Josef Kalcik

Dekleva Gregoric项目组:Aljosa Dekleva, Tina Gregoric, Daniel Schwartz

Ofis Architects项目组:Rok Oman, Špela Videcnik, Andrej Gregoric, Christian Gheorghe, Rastislav Udzan, Kiki Marien, Janez Martincic, Janja Del Linz

Sadar + Vuga项目组:Jurij Sadar, Bostjan Vuga, Vanja Gortnar, Sven Kalim, Siim Johan Alexander

结构工程:Sector inzeniring d.o.o.

机械工程:I.S.P. Kamnik d.o.o.

电机工程:Jelen & Zavasnik Bambi d.n.o.

交通运输工程:Tega d.o.o.

声学工程:Sasa Galonja

Vitanje是斯洛文尼亚的一个小镇,也是第一位空间理论学家Herman Potocnik Noordung的家乡,欧洲空间技术文化中心(KSEVT)的建立将会对Vitanje当地的文化和原社区活动中心举办的社会活动起到很大的补充作用和强调作用。该项目包含了额外的文化活动(展览、大型活动)和科学活动(研究、会议),这些都与“空间文化熏陶”现象紧密地连在一起。

该项目以一系列环环相扣的环形建筑呈现,这些环形建筑彼此紧挨在一起,从而形成了一个连续不断的倾斜式结构。这种设计将两栋建筑融合在一起:一栋建筑是包含一个圆形多功能厅和当地图书馆的本地社区活动中心,另一栋建筑则是容纳了展览和研究区域的空间技术博物馆。欧洲空间技术文化中心对公众来说意义重大,因为在这里可以举办社会、文化和科学活动,也可以举办固定和临时性展览、会议以及俱乐部/学习活动。

Noordung在1929年出版的名为《太空旅行的问题——火箭发动机》一书中描述了第一个地球同步卫星空间站的结构,建筑师设计这座欧洲空间技术文化中心时的灵感便来源于此。主展览空间环绕着主圆形大厅,通过两个空间之间的圆形开口与上方的研究空间连在一起。它在当地的社区项目和KSEVT的科学项目之间建立了一种互动关系。

该建筑超过了Vitanje一般房屋的大小。它的巨大体量和充满活力的存在感与位于小镇中央的小山上的主教堂建立了联系。用这种方法象征性地阐述了宗教和教堂与科学和文化之间的关联。

Noordnung的空间站被设计成一个地球同步卫星的结构,包含三个部分:太阳能电站、天文台以及轮状居住空间系统。经过对居住空间数十年的思量,这种设计想法发生了巨大的转变,但是还没有实现。旋转的轮状居住空间系统是一个圆形的建筑结构,利用离心力从而形成人造重力,对于长期需要在失重情况下居住在这里的人类来说,这无疑是最好的也是最简便的解决方案。因为我们并不习惯于这种失重条件,在长时间的运转过程中,它会对我们的身体产生一定的负面影响。在这个轨道上,考虑到地球引力仍然是开航方面最大的障碍,因而对于较长时间的宇宙飞行来说,空间站也代表了一个完美的开航点。

这栋建筑是混凝土结构单体,可以在一侧的主干路和另一侧包含绿色腹地的小溪之间任意确定位置。建筑物的内部和外部由两个低矮的圆柱体组成。底部的圆柱体较大,从北到南逐渐升高,而上层的圆柱体较小,向着北方抬起,在南边与较大的圆柱体连接在一起。底部的圆柱体由通透的入口玻璃表面支撑。

从外部看,圆柱体中间形成了一种动态效果,建筑物周围的完整环形玻璃结构也强调了这一点。建筑物仿佛在面对着马路的南侧和北侧漂浮旋转。而在另一侧,建筑的堑壕与周围的景观联系了起来。这种空间效果为建筑物营造了一种源自漂浮和旋转的人造重力效果。建筑物有两个入口——一个主入口通向建筑物东南侧前方的广场中央空间,而北侧入口则位于小溪上方的碎石地面。

主入口盖住了底部圆柱体的悬挑部分:人们穿过圆形门厅的狭小空间,就能进入大厅的内部。当大厅里举办活动时,一张帷幕便可以将这间门厅分隔开来。入口玻璃可完全打开,将大厅中举办的活动与广场连接起来。可以容纳300人的圆形大厅周围环绕着半圆形的斜坡。这表明这里是展览区域的开端,从这儿开始一直延续到较大圆柱体的悬挑部分。

在建筑物的西侧,也有较小的办公区域沿着斜坡而建。沿着这段斜坡往上走也代表了从明亮的大厅空间过渡到黑暗的展览区域。包含楼梯和大型电梯的垂直连接区域直接与展览区域连接在一起,直至大厅的门廊。展览空间也通过电梯和楼梯之间的楼梯平台延续到较小的圆柱体、多功能大厅以及大厅上方抬高的礼堂处。人们可以在这儿看到下方举办的活动。较小的圆柱体端部位于俱乐部区域最高最北侧的位置,空间技术历史的研究人员也在这里贡献着自己的力量,除了关注下方的活动以外,他们也将自己的注意力放在工作上。

在该项目的开发方面,除了项目的特殊性和地理位置是独一无二的以外,四家建筑事务所的合作也是绝无仅有的。合作的想法在第一次会议上被提出来,在这次会议上,投资者邀请四家建筑事务所合作参与内部设计竞赛——事实上事务所的负责人也决定一起做这个项目。在一系列研讨会上,各种设计理念层出不穷,之后所有的事务所在开发的不同阶段都彼此分享设计理念。


Architects: Dekleva Gregoric Arhitekti + SADAR + VUGA + OFIS architects + Bevk Perovic Arhitekti

Location: Vitanje, Slovenia

Site Area: 5,175 sqm

Client: KSEVT, Vitanje Community and Ministery of Culture

Area: 2,505 sqm

Year: 2012

Photographs: Tomaz Gregoric, Miran Kambic

Bevk Perovic Project Team: Matija Bevk, Vasa Perovic, Gerrit Neumann, Andreja Pikelj, Gonzalo Piqueras, Josef Kalcik

Dekleva Gregoric Project Team: Aljosa Dekleva, Tina Gregoric, Daniel Schwartz

Ofis Architects Project Team: Rok Oman, Špela Videcnik, Andrej Gregoric, Christian Gheorghe, Rastislav Udzan, Kiki Marien, Janez Martincic, Janja Del Linz

Sadar + Vuga Project Team: Jurij Sadar, Bostjan Vuga, Vanja Gortnar, Sven Kalim, Siim Johan Alexander

Structural Engineering: Sector inzeniring d.o.o.

Mechanical Engineering: I.S.P. Kamnik d.o.o.

Electrical Engineering: Jelen & Zavasnik Bambi d.n.o.

Traffic Engineering: Tega d.o.o.

Acoustic Engineering: Sasa Galonja

The Cultural Center of European Space Technologies (KSEVT) will substantially supplement and emphasize the local cultural and social activities of the former Community Center in Vitanje, the town in Slovenia that was family home to Herman Potocnik Noordung, the first theoretician of space. The program includes additional cultural (exhibitions, events) and scientific activities (research, conferences) strongly connected to the phenomena of ‘culturalisation of the space’.

The building features a series of interlocking rings that lie on top of each other to create a continuous ramped structure. The design integrates two buildings in one: a local community centre with a circular multi-purpose hall and local library and the museum of Space technologies with its exhibition and research areas. KSEVT will have a public significance and generate social, cultural, and scientific activities, with fixed and temporary exhibitions, conferences and club/study activities.

The concept design for the building of the KSEVT derives from the habitation wheel of the first geostationary space station described in Noordung’s 1929 book titled “The Problem of Space Travel – The Rocket Motor“. The main exhibition space circularly wraps the main round hall, which connects with the research spaces above through the round opening between the two spaces. It creates interaction between the program of local community and the scientific program of KSEVT.

The building exceeds the size of the generic houses of Vitanje. With its volumetric and dynamic presence builds the relation with the main church that sits on a little hill in the middle of the town. In this way symbolically represents the Science & Culture counterpart to the Religion & Church.

Noordnung’s space station was designed as a geostationary satellite out of three parts: a solar power station, an observatory and a habitable wheel. After several decades of ponderings on the habitation of space, this idea remains to be the most revolutionary, yet not realized. The rotating habitable wheel, a circular construction setting up artificial gravity with the centrifugal force, is the best and at the same time a simple solution for long-term human habitation of weightlessness. Since we are not accustomed to that kind of condition, it exerts negative influence upon our body in the long run. A station in this orbit could also represent a perfect point of departure for longer spaceflights, considering that the Earth’s force of attraction is still the greatest obstacle for that.

The building is a monolithic concrete structure, positioned freely between a main road on one side and a stream with a green hinterland on the other. The exterior and interior of the building are made of two low cylinders. The bottom one is larger and rises from the North to the South, while the upper cylinder is smaller and joins the larger one on the south while rising to the North. The bottom cylinder is supported by the transparent surface of the entrance glazing.

From the exterior, there is a dynamic effect between the cylinders, accentuated by the full glass rings around the building. The building appears to float and rotate on its southern and western sides towards the road. The entrenchment of the building into the surface on the other side gives a connection to its immediate surroundings. The spatial effects give the building the effect of artificial gravity from floatation and rotation. The building has two entrances- a main one to the central space from the square in front of the building on the south-eastern side and the northern entrance from the gravel surface above the stream.

The main entrance covers the overhanging part of the bottom cylinder: one passes through a tight space past a circular vestibule and into the interior of the hall. The vestibule can be separated from the activities in the hall by a curtain. The entrance glazing can be completely opened and can connect the activities in the hall with the square. The circular hall for 300 people is surrounded on both sides by a semicircular ramp. This denotes the beginning of the exhibition area, continuing from here to the overhanging part of the larger cylinder.

On the west, there are smaller office areas along the ramp. Ascending this ramp also represents a transition from the bright space of the hall to the dark exhibition area. The vertical connection with a staircase and large elevator connects the exhibition area directly to the vestibule of the hall. The exhibition space continues through the landing between the elevator and the staircase to the smaller cylinder, the multi-purpose hall, and a raised auditorium above the hall. From here, one can observe the activity below. The smaller cylinder is concluded at the highest, northernmost portion with a club area devoted to researchers of the history of space technology, where they can focus on their work aside from the activities below.

Besides special programme and location also collaboration of four architectural offices in developing the project is unique. The idea of collaboration raised on the first meeting where investor invited the four offices to collaborate on internal competition – and office principals decided to actually rather do the project together. The idea concepts came out on serious of workshops, later project was shared in different stages of development between all offices.