德国,埃森,福克旺图书馆 / Max Dudler

建筑师: Max Dudler Architekt

地点:德国埃森

项目建筑师:Alexander Bonte

客户:Duisburg branch of the Building and Real Estate Management Authority

面积:5,603 sqm

年份:2012

摄影:Stefan Müller

福克旺艺术大学是德国北莱茵威斯特伐利亚的艺术与音乐学院。其主校区坐落在鲁尔山谷以南的埃森市前本笃会修道院——圣·路德格鲁斯大教堂。这片可追溯到公元8世纪的地块面积不大,在18世纪扩张为一座富丽堂皇的巴洛克式住宅,围绕在一个宏伟庄严的主庭院旁边。在庭院南侧原先建有一座19世纪的部队医院,后于1969年拆毁,建筑师Max Dudler在这里建造了一座崭新的图书馆。2006年,北莱茵威斯特伐利亚的建筑与房地产管理局杜伊斯堡分局举办了一次建筑设计竞赛,Max Dudler一举夺魁。阿尔弗雷德·克虏伯·冯·波伦和哈尔巴赫基金会慷慨解囊为本项目提供资金支持。

1811年,德国尚处于法军的占领之下,法军在Werden修道院建起了一座监狱。后来普鲁士士兵对其进行扩建,并在庭院南侧修建医院。在拆毁医院大楼的时候,残余的建筑物看上去被打破了平衡的状态。新建筑并未复制原始的建筑外形,而是以其如水晶一般的宏伟结构将这一侧庭院封闭起来。新大楼的东面毗邻老教堂的行政管理翼楼。新楼的体积与普鲁士人横跨庭院盖起的翼楼大小相当。

建筑师将福克旺图书馆设计为一个单体结构,坐落于古老而粗糙的石墙底座上方。Max Dudler的建筑设计概念基于“博物馆陈列柜”这一思路:保护其内部珍藏品的外壳。功能区域围绕位于建筑中心的阅览室布置。书架一丝不苟地按顺序摆放在这个房间内,从而使该建筑在整体上具备一定的规模与结构。图书馆共有两个入口:主要入口是从庭院进来,经过一段户外楼梯,这种设计是为了在风格上靠近始于这个庭院的其他建筑入口。另一个入口在Klemensborn大街,作为紧急出口。借阅处、媒体室、行政区域和用品暂存处位于一楼,阅览室在二楼。一摞摞的档案都存放在图书馆的地下室。

建筑的立面设计是与摄影师斯蒂芬·穆勒合作开发的。立面的每一块玻璃上都印制着大幅面的石材特写。这些照片再现了原始尺寸的天然粗糙石材。这些摄影作品使用一种特殊的技术被直接复制在玻璃上。为与数字12在乐谱中的基本含义保持一致,将12个主题拼凑在一起形成了一段完整的旋律。

文艺复兴时期的人造大理石技术被用于创建灰泥大理石花纹,这种特殊的摄影技术制造了立面的幻觉,其风格取自石材本身。同时,石头花纹与玻璃平面之间形成了一种张力,让人想起历史上有名的五彩拉毛粉饰技术,该技术可将压纹蚀刻在光滑的石膏表面上。新建筑的光滑玻璃表面营造了一种抛光单体的完美印象。但是,建筑外观的半透明特点也让人产生了一些质疑,因而在不经意之间打破了内外的界限。屋内人们的轮廓可以映照在立面上。室内始终沐浴在柔和而通透的光线下。夜晚,建筑物灯火通明,照亮了室外的庭院。

该建筑由钢筋混凝土框架与混凝土核心构成,后者是为了加固结构。玻璃立面采用框架系统安装于建筑物悬挑而出的结构板上。混凝土柱子的形状和位置根据书架的尺寸而定。这些柱子外层的覆盖层为樱桃木,这种木材也用于阅览室的书架。并不是所有的柱子都承载。也有一些被用于“惰性”空调系统。通风管道直接安装在钢筋混凝土天花板中,这种建筑材料的潜力是可以成为吸热设备,因而能起到重要作用。将这一材料与热交换器结合使用,就能实现创新的能效提高。


Architects: Max Dudler Architekt

Location: Essen, Germany

Project Manager: Alexander Bonte

Client: Duisburg branch of the Building and Real Estate Management Authority

Area: 5,603 sqm

Year: 2012

Photographs: Stefan Müller

Folkwang University of the Arts is North Rhine Westphalia’s college of art and music. Its main campus is housed in the former Benedictine abbey of St. Ludgerus in Essen-Werden, situated in the southern Ruhr Valley. The small 8th century site was extended into a princely baroque residence in the 18th century, arranged around a magnificent courtyard (Cour d’honneur). The construction of the new library on the south side of the courtyard by the architect Max Dudler replaces a 19th century military hospital building demolished in 1969. In 2006 Max Dudler won the design competition organised by the Duisburg branch of the Building and Real Estate Management Authority, North Rhine Westphalia. The project was generously supported by the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation.

In 1811, while under French occupation, a prison was set up in Werden Abbey. The Prussians extended this and erected a hospital building on the south side of the courtyard. Upon the demolition of the hospital building, the remaining ensemble of buildings looked unbalanced. Without reproducing the original shape of the prison, the new building encloses this side of the courtyard with its voluminous crystalline structure. The new building’s eastern side adjoins the so-called administrative wing of the old abbey. The volume of the new building corresponds approximately to that of the Prussian wing across the courtyard.

Folkwang Library was conceived as a monolithic body built atop the level base of an old rough stone wall. Max Dudler’s concept for the building is based on the idea of the ‘museum showcase’: An exterior shell protecting the valuable contents within. The functional areas are grouped around the reading room, which lies at the centre of the building. The book shelves are arranged in strict order around this room, thereby lending scale and structure to the building as a whole. There are two entrances to the library: The main entrance is from the courtyard via a flight of external steps, designed to approximate the style of the entrances to the other buildings leading off from the courtyard. The library’s other entrance on the Klemensborn serves as an emergency exit. Lending desks, media cubicles, an administration area and cloakroom are situated on the ground floor; the reading room on the first floor. The compact archives are housed in the library’s basement.

The design of the building’s facade was developed in collaboration with the photographer Stefan Müller. Every pane of glass in the facade depicts a large format close-up of a quarry. These photographs reproduce the unhewn stone in its original size. The photographic works were applied directly onto the glazing using a special technique. In keeping with the elemental meaning of the number twelve in music, twelve motives were pieced together into an overall composition.

As with the scagliola technique of the Renaissance used to create stucco marbling, this special photographic technique creates the illusion of the facade being fashioned from the stone material itself. At the same time, a tension is created between the imagery of the textured stone and the flat surface of the glass, reminiscent of the historical sgraffito technique, whereby a graphic embossing is etched into a smooth plaster surface. The new building’s smooth glass surfaces create the perfect impression of a polished monolith. But this is called into question by the translucency of the building’s exterior, thereby playfully breaking the boundaries both from inside and out. Silhouettes of people can be seen beyond the facade. The interior is bathed in a soft, filtered light. In the evening, the building illuminates the courtyard outside.

The building comprises a reinforced concrete skeleton with concrete cores to provide stiffening. The glass facade is attached to the building’s projecting structural slabs using the mullion-transom system. The concrete pillars are shaped and positioned according to the dimensions of the book shelves. The pillars are clad in cherry wood, which is also used for the shelving in the reading room. Not all the pillars are load-bearing. Some are used as part of an ‘inert’ air-conditioning system. With the ventilation pipes being channelled directly through the reinforced concrete ceilings, this building material’s potential as a heat sink is thereby put to good use. Through coupling this with a heat exchanger, an innovative contribution to energy efficiency is achieved.