瑞士,巴塞尔,展馆新大厅 / Herzog + de Meuron

建筑师: Herzog & de Meuron

地点:瑞士巴塞尔

设计合伙人:Jacques Herzog, Pierre de Meuron, Stefan Marbach (Partner in Charge), Wolfgang Hardt

客户:MCH Swiss Exhibition (Basel) Ltd.

面积:83,297 sqm

年份:2013

摄影:Courtesy of Messe Basel

项目组:Tobias Winkelmann (准合伙人,项目主管), Michael Schmidt(准合伙人), Stefan Hörner(准合伙人), Roger Huwyler(项目建筑师), Roland Schreiber(项目建筑师); Philip Albrecht, Israel Alvarez Matamoros, Michael Bär, Axel Beck, Marcelo Bernardi, Benito Blanco Avellano, Alexander Bürgi, Amparo Casaní Arazo, Estelle Chan, Massimo Corradi(数字技术小组), Francisco de Freitas, Dorothee Dietz, Francis Fawcett, Oliver Franke, Eik Frenzel, Johann Gruber, Sabine Harmuth, Oke Hauser, Volker Helm(数字技术小组), Wilhelm Heusser, Yuko Himeno, Ursula Hürzeler, Debora Hummel, Thorsten Kemper, Oxana Krause, Sophia Lau, Christian Laviola, Corinne Lopez, Xiaojing Lu, Ulrik Mathiasson, Katja Mezger, Marcello Nasso, Benjamin Olschner, David Palussiere, Dirk Peters, Louis Putot, Susanna Rahm, Holger Rasch, Sebastian Reinhardt, Nina Andrea Renner, Steffen Riegas(数字技术小组), Kathrin Riemenschnitter, Nathalie Rinne, Georg Sebastian Schmid, Katja Schneider, Katharina Schwiete, Jochen Seelos, Jan Skuratowski, Johannes Staudt, Matthias Stücheli, Nicolas Venzin, Manuel Villanueva, Thomas von Girsewald, Miriam Waltz, Romy Weber, Léonie Wenz, Gerd Wetzel, Douwe Wieërs, Thomas Wyssen, Claudia Winkelmann, Camillo Zanardini, Christian Zerreis

电气工程:Herzog Kull Group AG

暖通工程:Lippuner Energie- und Metallbautechnik AG, CM Engineering GmbH, Plodeck Kurt ECS

景观设计:Vogt Landschaftsarchitekten

机械工程:Lippuner Energie- und Metallbautechnik AG

上下水道工程:Rechberger Huustechnik AG

结构工程:Ribi + Blum AG Ingenieure und Planer, Gruner AG, WITO Engineering GmbH

可持续设计顾问:Ingenieurbüro Stefan Graf

设计与施工承包方:HRS Real Estate AG

Urban and entrepreneurial planning

城市规划与企业规划

将展览广场周围的展厅集中起来是巴塞尔展馆在其未来发展过程中保持主导地位的一项关键的企业规划目标。此项战略的首要组成部分是建造展馆塔,并利用高度现代化的建筑及最佳的展览区域代替1号大厅,之后便是继续建造新大厅。

将展览中心的活动集中在一起,这对于小巴塞尔周边区域的发展来说也是一项重要的城市规划事宜,旨在重新拿回目前德国联邦铁路公司所在地附近的偏远的展览空间,作为公寓、办公室和小型企业办公场所,同时也能够将展览广场升级为小巴塞尔的一个中心点。

必要的拆除

通过将展馆聚集在一起从而实现这种企业及城市规划目的,同时保留巴塞尔市重要的钟表珠宝展,想实现这些方面就得替换展览广场上的1号大厅和3号大厅。这些大厅在天花板高度、柱距以及地板的承重能力等方面均无法满足现代化的展览需要。还有一点非常重要的是,将大厅彼此连接在一起确保了各种活动的灵活性,同时也保留了周围的停车场设施。

必要的结构

展览空间需要大型体量以及连续的地面空间,巴塞尔展馆新大厅就满足了这些条件,大厅共三层高,是沿Riehenring路而建的1号厅的扩建结构。为了在所有的展览大厅之间都形成室内连接,这栋新建筑跨越展览广场,形成了一片带顶的公共空间,也许它能够与火车站大厅或者室内市场相媲美,呈现出一种现代设计语言。这一关键的建筑和城市规划元素定义了展览广场南端的空间,上方宽阔的圆形开口也为这里带来了充足的光线。建筑师为大厅规划出多种用途,许多活动将在展览期间和两次展览之间的闲时举办,同时为国际或本地展览、公众游客也打造了特色餐厅和店铺,我们将这栋全新的室外大厅命名为“城市休息室”。这间城市休息室全天候开放,它不仅定义出展会空间的入口,同时也成了Clarastrasse大街上(小巴塞尔市的一条主要商业街)的一个公共生活焦点,并将大大增添展览广场附近街头文化的活力。例如,在秋季展会上,这个局部带顶的大厅将营造出醉人的氛围,其中的小型摊位以及过道既向大厅开放,同时也得到了保护与大厅保持距离。

城市休息室和展览广场

随着新大厅的扩建,展览广场中的现有活动将会继续,但是这些活动将在大小各异的空间内开展。曾经的细长矩形空间几乎都延伸到了Clara大街,没有明显的界限,而现在它几乎成了一个城市轮廓更加清晰的正方形空间。

建筑师在新大厅与现有的多层停车场之间打造了一条全新的“通道”,更加方便了行人进入展览广场。这条通道将广场东侧与Riehen路和Peter Rot路周围的住宅区连接在一起,它是Isteiner路的延续,建造了一条全新的东西主干道,将展览广场与整个地区融合在一起。新大厅的服务和供货主要通过地下路线完成,因而也减少了Riehen路上的货车交通量。

该展览广场是行人和自行车的专用区。展览广场与相邻的Rosentalanlage一起成了展览区许多居民的主要室外活动空间。Riehen大街上种植的众多树木扩大了展览广场与Wettstein广场之间连接道路边的城市绿化带面积,从而在视觉上将Rosentalanlage与展览中心连在一起。

如今的展馆应该是什么样?

在理想的情况下,展览馆应该是一个宽敞的空间,布局呈长方形,跨度很大,天花板的高度约为10m,这是为了展览需要而具备的一定程度的灵活性以及多功能性。近年来,人们对于这种宽阔空间的需求又有了进一步的增加。

我们以巴塞尔国际钟表珠宝展作为现代化国际展览的典型案例进行分析,个别参展商的展台、展示的商品以及如织的游客,使这里的大厅富有生气,展厅建筑的问题似乎并没有成为主要的需求。人们仅仅可以在公共区域和楼梯处感受得到建筑,只有在这些地方才能体会到更加壮阔的新兴城市美景。能阐明这一点的最好例证便是2号厅的圆形庭院。令人遗憾的是,这座庭院只有在展览期间才可以进入,毫无疑问它是巴塞尔最具吸引力的公共区域之一,尤其是在六月份举办巴塞尔艺术博览会时,它也是全瑞士最成功的城市聚会地点。这间城市休息室的设计目的在于将圆形庭院这种内向型建筑转变为外向型建筑,使人们全年都可以参观游览。

我们该如何在户外设计展厅?

从外面看,展厅实际上仅仅是一堆大箱子。它们所需的窗户非常少,建筑方面的明显差别被视为在内部灵活性方面不符合实际的限制条件。建筑成果通常由单调乏味的巨大2号厅砌砖立面或1号厅的玻璃立面组成。为了避免呈现出这种千篇一律的效果,我们在设计巴塞尔展馆新大厅时采取了一种截然不同的设计方法。

这栋新大厅的特色是包含三个展览楼层。最低一层是入口层,它与街道和户外广场在同一水平面上,让人们能自然而然地往来穿梭,也欢迎偶然的光临。一层入口使得城市休息室与现有的1号大厅、之前的3号大厅、能够容纳2500名观众的全新活动空间、许多店铺以及门厅的酒吧和餐厅等区域实现了无缝连接。临街立面的动态设计与往来人群互为呼应,同时也与电车站所需的空间以及展览中心和活动大厅的入口相对应。在这里,广阔的玻璃区域营造出一种必要同时也非常合适的空间透明感,以便于使展览馆建筑达到预想中的开放程度,同时也让公共都市生活变得充满生机。这种蓬勃发展的势头以及人们的认可程度对于“城市中的会展中心”理念能够长期成功贯彻来说也是至关重要的。

在一层之上还有两个展览楼层。为了避免出现“大箱子”的设计效果,两个上层体量彼此偏移摆放,就如同独立的结构一样,而它们也的确呈现出了这种效果!因此新大厅包含了三个独立的元素,一个在另一个的顶部,每一个元素都不同程度地在街道上方悬挑而出,也与不同的城市环境彼此呼应。无论是从Riehenring路、展览广场还是 Riehen路上看,巴塞尔展馆新大厅每次都会让人们对它产生不同的认知,因而也避免了清一色的立面线条显得单调乏味的效果。

自相矛盾的是,建筑师在所有外立面中都运用了均匀统一的铝质材料,却以此来强调建筑设计上充满变化。从设计战略上看,铰接式翘曲板条立面调整并减少了周边区域大型展览体量的规模。这不仅是装饰元素,更是一种调节自然光线落在附近住宅区中的实用手段,同时也从独特的空间(主要是城市休息室上方的社会区域)到城市的公共生活空间,均勾勒出独特的风景。


Architects: Herzog & de Meuron

Location: Basel, Switzerland

Partners: Jacques Herzog, Pierre de Meuron, Stefan Marbach (Partner in Charge), Wolfgang Hardt

Client: MCH Swiss Exhibition (Basel) Ltd.

Area: 83,297 sqm

Year: 2013

Photographs: Courtesy of Messe Basel

Projects Team: Tobias Winkelmann (Associate, Project Director), Michael Schmidt (Associate), Stefan Hörner (Associate), Roger Huwyler (Project Architect), Roland Schreiber (Project Architect); Philip Albrecht, Israel Alvarez Matamoros, Michael Bär, Axel Beck, Marcelo Bernardi, Benito Blanco Avellano, Alexander Bürgi, Amparo Casaní Arazo, Estelle Chan, Massimo Corradi (Digital Technology Group), Francisco de Freitas, Dorothee Dietz, Francis Fawcett, Oliver Franke, Eik Frenzel, Johann Gruber, Sabine Harmuth, Oke Hauser, Volker Helm (Digital Technology Group), Wilhelm Heusser, Yuko Himeno, Ursula Hürzeler, Debora Hummel, Thorsten Kemper, Oxana Krause, Sophia Lau, Christian Laviola, Corinne Lopez, Xiaojing Lu, Ulrik Mathiasson, Katja Mezger, Marcello Nasso, Benjamin Olschner, David Palussiere, Dirk Peters, Louis Putot, Susanna Rahm, Holger Rasch, Sebastian Reinhardt, Nina Andrea Renner, Steffen Riegas (Digital Technology Group), Kathrin Riemenschnitter, Nathalie Rinne, Georg Sebastian Schmid, Katja Schneider, Katharina Schwiete, Jochen Seelos, Jan Skuratowski, Johannes Staudt, Matthias Stücheli, Nicolas Venzin, Manuel Villanueva, Thomas von Girsewald, Miriam Waltz, Romy Weber, Léonie Wenz, Gerd Wetzel, Douwe Wieërs, Thomas Wyssen, Claudia Winkelmann, Camillo Zanardini, Christian Zerreis

Electrical Engineering: Herzog Kull Group AG

Hvac Engineering: Lippuner Energie- und Metallbautechnik AG, CM Engineering GmbH, Plodeck Kurt ECS

Landscape Architects: Vogt Landschaftsarchitekten

Mechanical Engineering: Lippuner Energie- und Metallbautechnik AG

Plumbing Engineering: Rechberger Huustechnik AG

Structural Engineering: Ribi + Blum AG Ingenieure und Planer, Gruner AG, WITO Engineering GmbH

Sustainability Consultant: Ingenieurbüro Stefan Graf

Design & Build Contractor: HRS Real Estate AG

Urban and entrepreneurial planning

The concentration of exhibition halls around the Messeplatz (Exhibition Square) is the key entrepreneurial aim of the Messe Basel leadership in its further development. Building the Messe Tower and replacing Hall 1 with a highly modern building and optimum exhibition areas were the first components in this strategy, followed by the continuing construction of new halls.

This concentration of exhibition centre activities is also an important urban planning matter for the development of the surrounding Kleinbasel neighbourhood, aimed at regaining outlying exhibition spaces on the present Deutsche Bahn (German Railways) area for apartments, offices and small businesses while simultaneously upgrading the Messeplatz as a focal point in Kleinbasel.

Necessary demolition

Achieving this entrepreneurial as well as urban planning aim of congegrating the Messe and at the same time retaining the important Watch and Jewellery Fair within Basel, required the replacement of two halls on the Messeplatz (Hall 1 at the front and Hall 3). These halls no longer fulfilled modern exhibition requirements in terms of ceiling heights, column spacing or load bearing capacity of the floors. It was also important that all halls be interconnected to ensure flexibility for various events, and that nearby car parking facilities should be retained.

Necessary construction

Fulfilling exhibition requirements for large volumes and uninterrupted floor areas, the New Hall is a three-storey extension of Hall 1 along the Riehenring. To provide indoor connection to all exhibition halls, the new building bridges over the Messeplatz and creates a covered public space, perhaps comparable to a railway station concourse or indoor market, realized in a modern design language. This key architectural and urban planning element defines the south end of the Messeplatz and is illuminated from above by a generous circular opening. Planned for many uses and events that will take place during and between exhibitions, and featuring restaurants and shops intended for a mix of international, local, exhibition, and public visitors, we have named this new outdoor hall the City Lounge. Open at all times, the City Lounge not only defines the entrance to the fair spaces, but will be a focal point of public life on Clarastrasse (the main shopping street in Kleinbasel) and will significantly enliven the street culture around the Messeplatz. For example, during the autumn fair the partially covered hall will create a fascinating atmosphere with smaller booths and aisles open to, yet protected, from the elements.

City Lounge and Messeplatz

With the addition of the New Hall, current activities on the Messeplatz will continue, but they will take place in a space with different proportions. What was once an elongated rectangle that more or less ran into Clarastrasse without noticeable demarcation is now almost a square with clearer urban definition.

A new “lane” between the New Hall and existing multi-storey car park offers better access to Messeplatz for pedestrians. Connecting east to the adjacent residential area around Riehenstrasse and Peter Rot-Strasse, this “lane” is a continuation of Isteinerstrasse and creates a new east-west link which integrates the Messeplatz into the quarter. Service and supply to the New Hall will be mainly through an underground route, thus reducing truck traffic on Riehenstrasse.

The Messeplatz is a pedestrian and cyclist precinct. Together with the adjacent Rosentalanlage, the Messeplatz will be the main outdoor space for the many residents of the Messe district. The green belt along the Messeplatz- Wettsteinplatz link will be enhanced by more trees on Riehenstrasse to visually connect the exhibition centre to the Rosentalanlage.

What is an exhibition hall today?

Ideally, exhibition halls should be as spacious as possible, rectangular in layout, with wide spans and ceiling heights of around 10 m, in order to provide the flexibility and versatility required for exhibition purposes. In recent years, the demand for such generous spaces has further increased.

Taking Baselworld as a leading example of a modern international exhibition, where the halls are animated by the individual exhibitors’ stands, the goods on display and the crowds of visitors, the question of an exhibition hall architecture does not seem to be a primary demand. Architecture is only perceptible in public areas and stairways and only there can an interface with the wider public landscape of the city emerge. The best illustration of this is the round courtyard in Hall 2. Regrettably, this courtyard is only accessible during exhibitions as it is undoubtedly one of the most attractive public areas in Basel and, especially during Art Basel in June, one of the most successful urban meeting points in the whole of Switzerland. The City Lounge aims to turn the inward-looking architecture of the round courtyard towards the outside and to make it accessible all year round.

How do we design an exhibition hall on the outside?

Viewed from the outside, exhibition halls are actually nothing more than a stack of big boxes. They require very few windows and architectural distinctions are deemed as impractical restrictions on interior flexibility. The architectural results are generally composed of vast, monotonous facades of brick as in Hall 2 or glass for Hall 1. To avoid this repetitive sameness, we took a different approach for the New Hall.

The New Hall features three exhibition levels. The entrance level, the lowest, is at grade with the street and outdoor square, permitting a natural and casual coming-and-going. Ground floor entrances seamlessly link the City Lounge to the existing Hall 1, former Hall 3, the new event space for 2’500 spectators, and a number of shops, bars and restaurants in the foyers. The dynamic sweep of the street level facade reacts to the flows of people and corresponds to the space required at the tram stop and entrances to the exhibition centre and Event Hall. Here, large expanses of glass create the spatial transparency both necessary and appropriate in order to achieve the openness envisioned for the exhibition hall complex and the enlivening of public urban life. This vitalisation and acceptance will be crucial to the long-term success of the "Messezentrum in the city" concept.

Above the ground will be two exhibition floors. To avoid the “big box” effect, the two upper volumes are offset from each other as separate entities, which indeed they are! The New Hall therefore consists of three individual elements, one on top of the other, each projecting over the street in varying degrees, and allowing them to respond to different urban conditions. From each point of view – whether from the Riehenring, Messeplatz or Riehenstrasse – the New Hall offers a different perception every time and thus avoids the monotony of uniform facade lines.

This constant architectural variation is reinforced, paradoxically, by applying a homogeneous material (aluminum) over all exterior surfaces. The facade of articulated twisting bands strategically modulates and reduces the scale of the large exhibition volumes to its surroundings. This is not simply a decorative element but a practical means to regulate the fall of natural light on adjacent properties and to frame specific views from individual spaces, primarily the social areas above the City Lounge, towards the public life of the city.