韩国,釜山,电影中心 / 蓝天组

建筑师:Coop Himmelb(l)au

设计负责人/ CEO:Wolf D. Prix

项目合伙人:Michael Volk

项目建筑师:Günther Weber

设计建筑师:Martin Oberascher, Jörg Hugo

项目组:Sergio Gonzalez, Rob Henderson, Guthu Hallstein, Matt Kirkham, Veronica Janovska, Dieter Segerer, Markus Baumann, Jasmin Dieterle, Anja Sorger, Jana Kucerova, Jan Brosch, Ivana Jug

客户:Municipality of Busan: Kim, Byung-Heui; Cho, Seung-Ho; Chai, Young-Eeon; Seo, Myoung Seok

年份:2012

摄影:Duccio Malagamba, Courtesy of Coop Himmelb(l)au

2005年,韩国釜山国际建筑文化节组织了一次设计竞赛,目的是为釜山国际电影节(BIFF)打造一个新家。奥地利建筑公司蓝天组的激进派设计获得了第一名,并于2008年底开工建设,在四年后的2012年竣工。在短短几年的时间里,该建筑赢得了国际建筑奖和芝加哥建筑设计博物馆颁发的2007年美国建筑奖,并且以其世界“最长悬挑屋顶”打破了吉尼斯世界纪录。蓝天组设计团队成功地实现了在绘图板以外很难见到的规模宏大的建筑巨作。

据蓝天组设计负责人沃尔夫·德·普瑞克斯先生介绍,该项目的基本概念主要展现了开放与闭合空间、公共与私人领域的重叠。设计的目的是针对公共交流、文化节目、娱乐活动、科技创新及建筑设计等方面创造一种全新的交互空间,在城市景观中塑造一块充满活力的丰碑。

然而,首先也是最重要的是,这个以屋顶为主题建筑元素的项目是蓝天组在韩国的首个尝试,这个主题该公司已关注了很长时间。设计团队从文艺复兴时期和巴洛克风格建筑、奥斯卡尼迈耶的里约热内卢设计的住宅屋顶以及勒·柯布西耶的组合住宅的雕塑屋顶中得到了灵感。

蓝天组为了时刻牢记以这种对屋顶的有力重新解读为整体建筑元素,特地将釜山电影中心的屋顶开发为无柱的带顶空间,这种设计与“翱翔的”屋顶理念最贴近——并进一步以其三维连接的天花板形成自身的特色。纯色的LED户外屋顶以天空的形象出现,使建筑体本身与广场区域共同融入一个连续的多功能公共城市空间之中。在这个可为各种活动量身打造场地的、充满灵活性的开放式建筑中,媒体、技术、娱乐、休闲等功能集于一身,因而建成了一个易于操控、善于转化的流动空间,充当了城市文化交流与转化的催化剂。

动态LED照明表面覆盖着户外屋顶起伏的顶棚,赋予釜山电影中心以标志性建筑的特征。艺术照明方案根据BIFF或釜山政府的活动要求特别定制,由视觉艺术家设计,以运动图像在整个天花板展示,在夜间营造了一种生动活泼的城市景象,在白天也能欣赏得到。

而电影院位于一座如山脉一般雄伟的建筑中,电影中心的公共空间可与户外电影院和巨大的公共空间共享,这些空间并称为“红毯区域”,即接待区。红毯区域实际上是三维的:尊贵的来宾经由沿着双锥体蜿蜒向上的斜坡到达接待大厅。每两个区域上方都罩着一面拱形的巨大屋顶,其中一个规模为60米×120米,相当于一个足球场的大小,其悬挑长度足有85米。

如今最富盛名的悬挑结构悬于一个城市广场上方,这个广场由好几个重叠的区域构成:城市山谷、红毯区域、星光大道以及BIFF运河公园。建筑物包含剧院、室内和户外电影院、会议厅、办公空间、创意工作室和餐厅,融会于各种带顶的彼此相连的室内外公共空间之内。这些空间的设计都易于维持功能上的多样性与灵活性,既能举办每年一度的电影节,也可以常年举行日常活动。

城市区域在平面格局上定义为功能地面,石材贴面的“电影院山”和“BIFF山”的“大地”造型,与金属和LED贴面的屋顶的“天空”元素之间形成的对话关系,进一步将这些城市区域串联在一起。建筑物所呈现出的不同的物质性不但能划分空间,也能阐明建筑概念。各个部位以其各自的造型、位置和物质性在地面与屋顶之间共同营造出一种充满活力而又不拘形式的张力。

“电影院山”之中的大剧院和各个电影院之间在结构上完全互相分离,这就确保了最佳的噪音隔离效果。其中大剧院是一个一流的观众大厅,布局灵活,共有两层观众席,视野极佳,声学效果可根据需求调整。灵活的古罗马式舞台两边是侧舞台,台上还有舞台塔,这种舞台具有活动声效控制塔,可在音乐会和歌剧表演时关闭舞台,同时也能在一般戏剧和音乐剧演出及举办其他舞台活动时轻松地撤掉。舞台前面还有前台升降机,可根据需要提供格外的观众席、乐池,或将舞台延伸出来。沿着观众包间墙上挂着的横向拉动的幕帘可以隐藏,也可以展开用于调整包间内的声学效果。

另外,还有一个用于户外活动的“大碗”,它环绕着运河,运河上来往的客船与私家游艇可将人们载往项目基地。釜山电影中心未来的扩建空间如同被运河环绕的一座孤岛,进一步整合了釜山电影中心的文化功能与周围的公共空间和景观环境。

本地合作方:Heerim Architects & Planners, Seoul / Korea:
Jeong, Young Kyoon; Eu, Sung Mo; Lee, Mog Woon; Kang, In Soo; Kim, SeoniI; Shin, Dong Young; Chang, Hyo Sup

结构工程:B+G Ingenieure, Bollinger und Grohmann GmbH Frankfurt / Vienna, Germany/ 奥方:Klaus Bollinger, Jan Lüdders, Daniel Pfanner, Astrid Münzinger, Jürgen Asmussen Jeon and Partner, 韩方:Jeon, Bong-soo, Yoon, Heum-hak, Kim, Dong-gwan, Ms. Nam, Jung-hwa, Lee, Jang-hong, Ms. Han, Hye-hwa, Kim, Seung-a, Yi, Joon

机电工程:Arup, Berlin, Germany: Bryan Cody, Till Pasquai, Tobias Burkhart, Akif Berkyuerek

照明设计:Har Hollands, Eindhoven, Netherlands

风力研究:Wacker Ingenieure, Birkenfeld /德方:Jürgen Wacker, Michael Buselmeier

立面咨询:Face of Building, Oberpullendorf /奥方:Johannes Stimakovits, Harald Weidinger

影剧院咨询:Artec, New York / USA: Tateo Nakajima, Ed Arenius, Ted Pyper

3D设计:Renate Weissenböck, Jan-Ruben Fischer

模型制作:Paul Hoszowski, Ernst Stockinger, Vincenzo Del Monaco, Johannes Spiesberger, Markus Erhardt, Hyoung Sub, Marc Werner

效果图绘制:Armin Hess/Isochrom

竞赛组织方:Busan International Architectural Culture Festival Organizing Committee: Yeonjegu Jungangro, Korea

竞赛团队:Victoria Coaloa, Rob Henderson, Paul Hoszowski, Jörg Hugo, Irakli Itoni, Alex Jackson, Matt Kirkham, Shannon Loew, Mona Marbach, Jens Mehlan, Tom Wiscombe, Burcu Bicer, Etienne Chanpenios, Monika Heliosch, Akvile Rimantaite


Architects: Coop Himmelb(l)au

Design Principal / Ceo: Wolf D. Prix

Project Partner: Michael Volk

Project Architect: Günther Weber

Design Architects: Martin Oberascher, Jörg Hugo

Project Team: Sergio Gonzalez, Rob Henderson, Guthu Hallstein, Matt Kirkham, Veronica Janovska, Dieter Segerer, Markus Baumann, Jasmin Dieterle, Anja Sorger, Jana Kucerova, Jan Brosch, Ivana Jug

Client: Municipality of Busan: Kim, Byung-Heui; Cho, Seung-Ho; Chai, Young-Eeon; Seo, Myoung Seok

Year: 2012

Photographs: Duccio Malagamba, Courtesy of Coop Himmelb(l)au

In 2005, the Busan International Architectural Culture Festival in South Korea organized a design competition for a new Busan Cinema Center that would be home to the Busan International Film Festival (BIFF). Austrian firm Coop Himmelb(l)au's radical design received first place and construction began in late 2008, finishing four years later in 2012. In its very short history, the building has already won the International Architecture Award and the Chicago Athenaeum in 2007 as well as a Guinness World Record for the "longest cantilever roof" in the world. The Coop Himmelb(l)au team has managed to successfully bring to life an architectural vision of a caliber seldom seen off of the drafting board.

According to Wolf D. Prix, the firm's Design Principal, the basic concept of this project was the discourse about the overlapping of open and closed spaces and of public and private areas. The design aims to provide a new intersection between public space, cultural programs, entertainment, technology and architecture, creating a vibrant landmark within the urban landscape.

First and foremost, however, the project - the firm's first in South Korea - addresses the theme of the roof as an architectural element – a topic which the firm has been concerned with for a long time. The team drew inspiration from the Renaissance and Baroque era cupola, the roof of Oscar Niemeyer's house in Rio de Janeiro as well as the sculptural roof of Le Corbusier's Unité d’Habitation.

Keeping in mind these powerful reinterpretations of the roof as an integral architectural element, Coop Himmelb(l)au developed the roofs of the Busan Cinema Center as a column-free covering of space that comes closest to the idea of a “flying” roof - further differentiated by its three-dimensionally articulated ceiling. LED saturated outdoor roof elements acting as a virtual sky connect building-objects and plaza-zones into a continuous, multifunctional public urban space. Media, technology, entertainment and leisure are merged in an open-architecture of changeable and tailored event experiences. The result is a responsive and changing space of flows acting as an urban catalyst for cultural exchange and transformation.

The dynamic LED lighting surface covering the undulating ceilings of the outdoor roof canopies gives the Busan Cinema Center its symbolic and representative iconographic feature. Artistic lighting programs tailored to events of the BIFF or the Municipality of Busan can be created by visual artists and displayed across the ceiling in full motion graphics, creating a lively urban situation at night, but also visible during the day.

While the movie theaters are located in a mountain-like building, the Center’s public space is shared between an outdoor cinema and a huge public space which is called the Red Carpet Area – i.e. reception area.The Red Carpet Area is actually three-dimensional: across a ramp which leads along a double cone, the guests of honour reach the reception hall. Each of the two areas is overarched by a huge roof, one of them measuring 60 x 120 meters – the size of a soccer field – and cantilevering 85 meters.

The now famous cantilever hovers over an urban plaza consisting of overlapping zones called the Urban Valley, the Red Carpet Zone, the Walk of Fame and the BIFF Canal Park. The building objects contain theater, indoor and outdoor cinemas, convention halls, office spaces, creative studios and dining areas in a mixture of sheltered and linked indoor and outdoor public spaces. The design of these spaces supports flexible, hybrid functionality that can be used both during the annual festival period and day-to-day use without interruption.

The urban zones defined by functional surfaces in plan are further articulated in a sectional dialogue between stone-clad “ground” forms of the Cinema Mountain and BIFF Hill, and the metal and LED clad “sky” elements of the roofs. The materiality of the building objects differentiates the spaces and articulates the architectural concept. Through their shape, placement and materiality, the various parts create a dynamic and informal tension between the ground and the roof.

Complete structural separation between the theater and the cinemas of Cinema Mountain ensures optimal noise isolation for the theater space, which is designed as a first-class, flexible hall with seating on two levels and optimal sight lines and adjustable acoustics. A flexible proscenium type stage with side stages and fly-tower accommodates movable acoustical towers used to close down the stage volume for concerts and operatic theater, but can be easily moved for theater, musicals and other staged events. The stage includes a fore-stage lift that can provide additional seating, an orchestra pit or stage extension as preferred. Horizontally tracking curtains along the walls of the audience chamber can be hidden or deployed to adjust the acoustics of the space.

An additional outdoor event ‘bowl’ is proposed surrounded by canals that can provide public and private boat access to the project site. Space for a future extension of the Busan Cinema Center project is proposed as an island among the canals, further integrating the cultural functions of the Busan Cinema Center project with the surrounding public space and landscape environment.

Local Partner: Heerim Architects & Planners, Seoul / Korea:
Jeong, Young Kyoon; Eu, Sung Mo; Lee, Mog Woon; Kang, In Soo; Kim, SeoniI; Shin, Dong Young; Chang, Hyo Sup

Structural Engineering: B+G Ingenieure, Bollinger und Grohmann GmbH Frankfurt / Vienna, Germany/ Austria: Klaus Bollinger, Jan Lüdders, Daniel Pfanner, Astrid Münzinger, Jürgen Asmussen Jeon and Partner, Seoul / Korea: Jeon, Bong-soo, Yoon, Heum-hak, Kim, Dong-gwan, Ms. Nam, Jung-hwa, Lee, Jang-hong, Ms. Han, Hye-hwa, Kim, Seung-a, Yi, Joon

Mechanical, Electrical Engineering: Arup, Berlin, Germany: Bryan Cody, Till Pasquai, Tobias Burkhart, Akif Berkyuerek

Lighting Design: Har Hollands, Eindhoven, Netherlands

Wind Studies: Wacker Ingenieure, Birkenfeld / Germany:
Jürgen Wacker, Michael Buselmeier

Facade Consulting To Chbl: Face of Building, Oberpullendorf / Austria: Johannes Stimakovits, Harald Weidinger

Theater Consulting To Chbl: Artec, New York / USA: Tateo Nakajima, Ed Arenius, Ted Pyper

3 D Design: Renate Weissenböck, Jan-Ruben Fischer

Model: Paul Hoszowski, Ernst Stockinger, Vincenzo Del Monaco, Johannes Spiesberger, Markus Erhardt, Hyoung Sub, Marc Werner

Renderings: Armin Hess/Isochrom

Competition Organizer: Busan International Architectural Culture Festival Organizing Committee: Yeonjegu Jungangro, Korea

Competition Team: Victoria Coaloa, Rob Henderson, Paul Hoszowski, Jörg Hugo, Irakli Itoni, Alex Jackson, Matt Kirkham, Shannon Loew, Mona Marbach, Jens Mehlan, Tom Wiscombe, Burcu Bicer, Etienne Chanpenios, Monika Heliosch, Akvile Rimantaite