西班牙,阿尔梅里亚 ,威卡罗维拉的塔楼改造项目 / Castillo Miras Arquitectos

建筑师: Castillo Miras Arquitectos

地点:西班牙阿尔梅里亚,威卡罗维拉

总建筑师:Mercedes Miras Varela, Luis Castillo Villegas

设计组:Daniel Lopez Martinez, Luis Hervas Lopez

面积:3,483 sqm

年份:2010

摄影:Fernando Alda

结构工程师:Satec Ingenieros

施工技术员:Luis Hervas Lopez

防雷顾问:Lledo S.L.

考古学家:Entorno y Vegetacion S.A.

承包商:Costrucciones J.Lorenzo S.L.

威卡罗维拉的塔楼可以追溯到13世纪:在纳扎里王国统治伊比利亚半岛的南部地区时期,是阿拉伯人建造的这座塔楼。

塔楼的位置是基督徒国家和纳扎里王国之间的边界,当时基督徒已在逐步夺回领土,阿拉伯王国后退到了安达卢西亚的小堡垒之中。

现有的残余塔楼结构屹立于悬崖边,是一座已经消失不见的大城堡的局部。这个凸起于地面的飞地自古以来就是防御带的一部分:在周围有可以追溯到青铜器时代的考古遗址。

在纳扎里王国灭亡之后,城堡失去了它的主要防御功能,并逐渐慢慢颓败,随后就形成了荒废的局面。在西班牙内战时期,这里成了掩体,在墙上开了几个洞口架起机枪向外扫射。近五十年来,这座塔一直归私人所有,业主为满足其个人需要,对其进行了一系列重大的改造。近年来,当地自治政府终于获得了塔楼的产权,着手对该项目进行修复。

本项目的主要修复目的是使塔楼重新对外开放,并包含了对原先建筑的修复与重建工作。所遵循的标准是尽可能多保留原始材料,消除现代元素,重修原始的泥土墙和砖石结构。考虑到基地在考古方面的重要性,新建结构都是可移动的,没有打地基,直接放置在地面上,所用材料与原结构的材料也形成了鲜明的对比。本项目强调的不是重建,而是新增加的部分,填补曾经失去的建筑碎片。

该项目试图重新利用现有的地形,以减少地面改建动作,所以停车场设置在位于通道尽头一处现成的高地上。用一个单体耐候钢箱子来容纳咨询处办公室。它就像一个集装箱,目的是显示其可拆卸、可移动的特性。

从这一点开始,借助考古学家的研究之旅发现了一条人行道。连同他们提供的指南,基地的地形本身就能引出一条通道。所选择的布局需要有一个缓坡,创建休憩与观景的平面空间。小径上铺砌着预浇混凝土砖。沿着路边摆放的石头长椅就好像山脉的一部分。

塔楼原来的入口高出地面4米。为修复这条通道,建起了一段新的风化钢楼梯。楼梯被设计成一个轻盈、可移动的物体,与现有的建筑的特质差异明显。相对于塔楼坚固的四边形体量,楼梯是一个圆形、生锈的临时结构。它正如一个外来元素,取材强调了其临时性质。

为了让人能够欣赏到周边地区的美景,在钢圆筒上开凿了几个洞口。结构设计体现出“长廊建筑”的特点,游客们慕名而来,只为欣赏这片在狂风鞭挞下逐渐荒芜的土地上的美景。

修复原有结构的主要目标是保护和修复原始材料,尽量去掉后期添加的覆层,换上原始材料。泥土墙经过清洗和加固处理。在原有表面受损过大的地方,循着原先墙面装饰层的几何图案,覆盖了一层崭新的石灰岩砂浆覆层。

塔楼的内部近年来得到了明显的改建。本项目的目标是消除所有的加建部分,封闭新添的开口,并刮去隐藏了原有结构的石膏涂层。最初的室内楼梯局部已被拆除,按照相似塔楼内部的楼梯类型得到了重建。

地面原本铺着20世纪后期的地砖,在这里被换成了新的浮式木地板,与原来的墙体脱离。

刮去墙上的粉刷涂料之后,原始的砖结构显露出来。

内部颜色和材料的运用意图营造一种温暖、热情的感觉,与建筑外观那粗糙、含蓄的风格截然相反。

这个简单而又强势的干预设计力图展现一座由无名工匠利用简单建材建造的永恒建筑的亮点,同时也强调了修复项目的临时、轻盈与环保的特质。


Architects: Castillo Miras Arquitectos

Location: , Almería, Spain

Architect In Charge: Mercedes Miras Varela, Luis Castillo Villegas

Design Team: Daniel Lopez Martinez, Luis Hervas Lopez

Area: 3,483 sqm

Year: 2010

Photographs: Fernando Alda

Structural Engineer: Satec Ingenieros

Quantity Surveyor: Luis Hervas Lopez

Lightning Consultant: Lledo S.L.

Archaeologist: Entorno y Vegetacion S.A.

Contractor: Costrucciones J.Lorenzo S.L.

The “Torre de Huercal Overa” dates back to the 13th century: it was built by the Arabs when the Nazari kingdom reigned in the south of the Iberian Peninsula.

Its location was the border between Christians and Nazaris at a time when the Reconquest had progressed and the Arab kingdom was reduced to the small bastion of Andalusia

Situated on the edge of a cliff, the existing remains were part of a bigger fortress now disappeared. This raised enclave was part of a defensive belt since ancient times: in the surroundings there are archeological remains dating back to the bronze age.

After the fall of the Nazari kingdom the fortress lost its main function and slowly deteriorated, subsequently falling in a state of dilapidation. During the Spanish civil war it was used as a bunker and several openings were made to fire machine guns. The tower was privately owned during the last fifty years and the proprietor carried out a number of significant alterations to suit his needs. In recent years the municipality gained the rights of property and commissioned the project for the restoration.

The main aim of the project was to make the tower accessible, and encompassed the repair and restoration of the original building. The criteria followed were to preserve as much as possible of the original materials, removing modern elements and resurfacing the original mud wall and brick fabric. Give the archeological importance of the site, new additions are made as removable objects, placed directly onto the ground without foundations and made with contrasting materials with the ones the original structure was built. Instead of reconstructing, the project emphasizes the new additions and states the lost pieces.

The project tries to reuse the existing topography to minimize ground alteration, so the parking area is set at an existing plateau at the end of the access road. A monolithic cor-ten steel box is placed to house the information office. Like a shipping container, it is intended to show its removable, traveling nature.

From that point, a pedestrian path was traced with the help of the archaeologists. Together with the guidelines they provided, the topography of the site traced itself the path to follow. The chosen layout looks for a gentle slope and creating flat spaces to rest and look. The trail is paved with pre-casted concrete tiles. Stone like benches are set along the way, emerging like part of the mountain.

The original entry to the tower was four meters above ground level. To restore this access, a new weathering steel staircase is built. It is conceived as a light, removable object with a contrasting nature with the existing building. In opposition to the solid, quadrangular materiality of the tower, the staircase is a rounded, rusty, temporary structure. Like a foreign object, its materiality reinforces its provisional nature.

This steel cylinder is punctured in order to create controlled views into the landscape. In a sort of “promenade architectural” through the structure, visitors are invited to enjoy the beauty of this barren landscape lashed by the wind.

The main aim for the restoration of the existing structure was to preserve and repair the original materials, removing the additions and surfacing the original materials where possible. The mud walls were cleaned and consolidated. In those places where the original surface was too damaged, a new limestone mortar cover was applied following a geometrical pattern framing the original wall finish.

The interior of the tower was significantly altered in recent years. The projects objective was   to remove all the additions, close newly made openings and remove the plaster coating that hid the original fabric. The original interior staircase, which was partially demolished, is rebuilt based on the typology found in similar towers.

The floor was covered with late twenty century tiles that were taken out: a new floating wood floor is placed instead, detached from the original walls.

After removing the plaster coating on the walls, the original brick fabric emerged.

The use of colour and materials in the interior intend to create a warm, welcoming feeling in contrast with the hash, introverted nature of the building’s exterior.

This simple yet emphatic intervention is intended to show the strength of an ageless construction, made by anonymous builders with simple materials, as well as to emphasize the provisional, light, degradable nature of the contemporary.