丹麦,哥本哈根 ,联合国哥本哈根地区总部(联合国城)/ 3XN

建筑师:3XN

地点:丹麦哥本哈根,Marmorvej 51

面积:20000.0 sqm

年份:2013

摄影: Adam Mõrk

这座位于哥本哈根北部港口的新办公总部大楼汇集了联合国驻哥本哈根办事处的各种机构和功能。

开放性与安全性之间的平衡

在设计这座办公总部大楼之时,高度的安全性和便捷的访问环境已成为考虑的重心。联合国城必须符合最严格的要求,提供一种受到严密保护的安全环境,同时展现出对于这座城市的开放性与包容性。建筑物位于一座人工岛上,自然而然地与周围环境隔离,同时从城市和水面上都能十分清楚地看到这里。

从空中俯瞰,建筑的八角形形式无疑是清晰的视觉参照点,正如联合国一样,其事务触及全世界的各个角落。联合国城与周围锈迹斑斑的码头岸边相似,也有着深色的磨光钢基础,白色的主体建筑就耸立在这个基础上。建筑的外形参照了哥本哈根海港特有的线条优美的白色船只。

建筑立面覆盖层为白色多孔铝质百叶窗,这是建筑师3XN和承包商Pihl专门为联合国城开发的。百叶窗不但能遮挡强烈的日光,还不会遮挡视线和自然光线。立面由三米长的模块构成,所以员工就能够用自己的电脑来控制遮阳装置。因而实现了改良的室内环境,以及体现这个充满活力的建筑的动态立面。

在星形建筑的核心部位,有一个洒满日光的中庭,连接着容纳所有普通功能的大厅与汇集了联合国各个不同机构的办公楼层。从中庭延伸出一条楼梯将各个楼层衔接在一起。3XN设计的楼梯彷如戏剧般的空间雕塑,它的外形也象征着联合国的工作:为世界各地人民创造对话、互动和积极接触的机会。在日常生活中,雕塑的形式也格外吸引联合国工作人员使用楼梯,这样一来,这段楼梯也为联合国各个组织机构营造了对话、合作和非正式会议的场所。

所有的办公楼层均拥有开放通透、布局灵活的特点,鼓励知识的共享与交流,也适合个人专心工作。办公区光照充足,具有良好的室内气候。

会议设施

这栋总部大楼拥有90多间会议室,其中包括一系列功能灵活的房间,分布在各个楼层,工作人员可以根据其不同的目的来使用这些房间。礼堂是一个可容纳450人的会议房间。若举办规模较小的会议,还可以使用专门设计的隔断将礼堂划分为几个较小的房间。

各个楼层的可持续性

从设计阶段开始,参与联合国城项目的各个团队就始终在遵守国际环境标准和法规。一号园区经过设计,比同等规模的办公楼节约了至少55%的能源消耗。联合国城因此有望成为丹麦最节能的建筑之一,每年每平方米能耗不到50千瓦时(丹麦能源分类一级)。联合国城(一号园区)已申请LEED可持续评级系统认证,目标是LEED白金奖®,并且在2012年获得了由欧盟委员会颁发的著名“绿色建筑奖”。

绿化措施

空气质量——经过设计,建筑物限制了化学物质和污染物在施工及其运行中的使用。建筑物利用经过过滤的室外空气进行内部通风。如此可以确保内部空气保持干净、新鲜,也有助于平衡室内的湿度水平。

太阳能电池板——1400多块太阳能电池板被安装在楼顶内部,用以支持现场生产可再生能源这一目标的实现。这些太阳能电池板估计总产能水平为297000千瓦时/年,显著降低了对于电网供电的需要。

海水冷却——冷却的海水用泵注入建筑的冷却系统,因而几乎完全不需要靠电力来维持冷却循环系统。

用水效率——在整个建筑的厨房、厕所和淋浴间的水龙头中都安装了新式通风装置。低流量的水龙头可减少水的用量。此外,屋顶的管道每年差不多可收集300万升的雨水,这几乎足以冲洗整个建筑的厕所了,所以无需使用饮用水来冲洗厕所。

遮阳系统——建筑立面上的复杂的遮阳装置可开可关,可收集太阳辐射的热量,也可将之反射出去。

反射屋顶——在建筑物的屋顶已覆盖了一层白色的可回收薄膜,由植物性材料制成。环保涂料可反射阳光,可避免太阳辐射造成的室内过热。


Architects: 3XN

Location: Marmorvej 51, Copenhagen, Denmark

Area: 20000.0 sqm

Year: 2013

Photographs: Adam Mõrk

Bringing together the various agencies and functionsof the United Nations offices in Copenhagen, the new main office building is located at the northern harbour of Copenhagen.

Balancing openness and security

High security and accessibility standards have been central considerations in the design of the new main office building. The UN City must live up to the most stringent requirements, providing a protected and safe environment, while at the same time appearing open and accommodating to the city. Located on an artificial island the building is naturally separated from its immediate surroundings, while still being higly visible from both the city and the water.

From above, the eight-pointed star shape is a clear visual reference point, which, like the UN, reaches out to all corners of the world. Similar to the surrounding rusty pier edges, the UN city has a dark burnished steel base from which the white main building rises. This is a reference to the elegant white ships that characterize this part of the Copenhagen harbor.

The building has a façade cladding of white perforated aluminum shutters, developed by 3XN and contractor Pihl specifically for the UN City. The shutters ensure solar shading without blocking the view or the daylight. Since the facade is divided into three meter long modules, it is possible for the employees to control the sunshade from their computers. The result is an improved indoor environment, and a dynamic façade expressing a building full of life.

From the core of the star-shaped building, a daylight filled atrium connects the lobby level containing all common functions, with the office levels, where the various UN agencies are distributed. From the atrium a central staircase binds all levels together. 3XN has created the staircase as a dramatic spatial sculpture, which is to be seen as a symbol of the UN’s work to create dialogue, interaction and positive encounters between people in all parts of the world. In the daily life, the sculptural form inspires the UN employees to want to use the stairs, and thus the staircase also forms the basis for dialogue, cooperation and informal meetings between the various UN organizations.

All office levels are characterized by an open and flexible layout encouraging knowledge sharing and interaction as well as individual concentration. Work stations are ensured plenty of high quality daylight and a good indoor climate.

Meeting facilities

The main office building has more than 90 meeting rooms including a number of flexible rooms on each floor that staff can use for various purposes. The auditorium isa conference facility with a total capacity of 450 people. For smaller conferences and meetings, the auditorium can be divided into smaller rooms by using specially designed partitions.

Sustainability at all levels

From the design phase and onwards, the teams involved in the UN City project have worked to comply with international environmental standards and regulations. Campus 1 has been designed to use at least 55% less energy than expected from a similar-sized office building. The UN City is thus expected to become one of Denmark’s most energy efficient buildings with an annual energy consumption of less than 50 KwH per m2 (Danish Energy Class 1). The UN City (Campus 1) is registered with the LEED sustainability ratings system with the certification goal of LEED® Platinum and has been awarded the prestigious ”GreenBuilding Award 2012” by the European Commission.

Greening measures

Air quality - The building has been designed to limit the use of chemicals and pollutants during both its construction and its use. The building is entirely ventilated with filtered outside air. This ensures that only clean, fresh air is present in the building and helps balance the interior humidity level.

Solar panels - More than 1,400 solar panels are lining the roof of the building to support the goal of generating renewable energy onsite. With an estimated total production of 297,000 kWh/year, the solar panels significantly reduce the need for electricity from the grid.

Sea water cooling - Cold seawater pumped into the building’s cooling system, almost entirely eliminating the need for electricity to power the cooling cycle.

Water efficiency - Innovative aerators have been placed in the taps in kitchens, toilets and showers throughout the building. The low-flow taps reduce water usage. In addition, pipes on the roof capture almost 3,000,000 litres of rainwater annually, which is almost enough to flush the toilets of the entire building without using potable water.

Solar shades - Sophisticated solar shades on the building’s facade can be opened and closed to either trap or reflect the sun’s heat.

Reflective roofs - The roof of the building has been coated with a white, recyclable membrane, made from plant-based materials. The environmentally-friendly coating reflects sunlight and reduces the solar warming of the building.