澳大利亚,布里斯班,会展中心扩建项目 / Cox Rayner Architects

建筑师: Cox Rayner Architects

地点:澳大利亚布里斯班

客户:South Bank Corporation

摄影: Angus Martin Photography, Christopher Frederick Jones, Florian Groehn Photography

来自建筑师的描述。

格雷街布里斯班会展中心是建于1996年的布里斯班会展中心一个重要的扩建项目,也是原建筑设计概念的圆满完结。由于政府资金分散到其他公共项目上,因此原建筑设计在1996年就中止了。

时间的推迟反而对整个设施更加有利,因为新建部分可以满足会议变化的需求,建成更小、更精致、设备更加齐全的场馆,包括独立设置的礼堂、会场与展览空间。

虽然新老建筑都由同一家建筑师事务所设计,但是新建筑并没有模仿原来的设计,而是以新的形式和表现方式反映出了变化的功能需求。这样的表现方式也是对长200米,宽却只有30米的建筑场地的一种回应,在立面与相应的屋顶景观上创造了建筑师所说的由“分句”和“标点符号”组成的“建筑语句”。这样的设计使格雷街上原来比较贫困的区域充满生气。建筑与历史悠久的火车站相连,俯瞰着南岸的商业与酒店中心。

概念框架

设计最主要的要求就是反映出不同于20世纪90年代的新时代会议模式,利用“建筑语句”的概念赋予南岸主街格雷街上被人遗忘的区域以新的活力。第一个要求意味着新建筑要采用与事务所原来设计的布里斯班会展中心不同的建筑语言,创造一种全新的语言,使功能空间在临街一侧清晰呈现,使人们可以看到空间内部的活动。

第二个要求是使这个不同寻常的又长又窄的场地(200米×30米)充满生气,创造出起伏的屋顶序列和一系列立面连接,就如同一个文学诗句或者一段音乐。建筑语言在不同的部分——剧场、门厅、会场、功能性露台——有着重大的变化,除此之外,设计还采用了其他的连接方式,比如,人们的视线可以穿透剧场,因此在剧场内部可以看到外面的景色。

公共利益与文化利益

格雷街布里斯班会展中心有助于“拯救”格雷街走向没落却十分重要的区域,这里连接着城市文化中心与南岸的城市中心。较高的可达性与通透性显著提高了街道的公共安全(得到了相邻的QPAC的证实)。

该项目创造了一条跨越南岸铁轨的新公共通道,连接着南岸与西区,铁轨下方有一条穿过原有建筑车库的走廊。更重要的是,新建筑使布里斯班有能力承接澳大利亚其他任何城市都无法承接的各类综合性会议与表演,使布里斯班会展中心综合建筑成为澳大利亚迄今为止最成功的、具有商业与观光价值的会展中心。

建成形式与文脉的关系

文脉关系最有效、最明智的方法和建筑解决方案已经在上面描述过了,包括建筑与街道的关系、与和其相连的原有建筑的关系以及与建筑所开敞面对的端部的关系。

解决方案

该方案主要是解决纵剖面与横剖面的的问题,平面布局是在这二者基础上设定的,而并非是二者以平面布局为基础。起主导作用的限制条件是高架铁轨层与原有布里斯班会展中心广场层。决定性的“移动”是将两个分别有600座和400座的剧场堆叠设置,堆叠的方式使所有的四个功能楼层都能灵活方便地进入剧场,而这两个剧场组成了设备齐全的会展场馆。

联合相关学科

建筑师与艺术家布鲁斯·雷诺兹的合作非常关键,布鲁斯·雷诺兹创造了三个系列的作品,对南岸的文脉作了不同的历史性和地理性的诠释:一个是多面的雕塑;一个是艺术展示的背景;还有一个是“悬崖”墙,人们可以通过一系列中庭空间(面向铁路走廊)爬上这面墙

成本/价值成果

该项目预算为1.4亿美元。用布里斯班会展中心CEO的话说,该建筑的价值表现为“精品概念,卓越建筑……会展中心开业后经历了一段热闹非凡的时期,有300多场活动在此预约,仅一年就可为昆士兰州带来93亿美元的经济收入”。格雷街布里斯班会展中心在2012年的收入创造了整个中心自1996年开业以来的最高纪录。

可持续性

布里斯班会展中心是澳大利亚仅有的两个获得澳大利亚绿色建筑委员会颁发的五星绿色之星(设计)认证的会展中心之一。它的设计利用了老布里斯班会展中心的能源能力,不使用任何其他的冷水设备。建筑系统还采用了太阳能热水发电,不增加老会展中心原有系统的能源需求。空调系统是专为有人使用的众多精品空间设计的,以尽量减少浪费。

所有固定和松散设置的家具均来自可持续的和可回收的材料,一个巨大的地下水箱为中心提供非饮用水,剩余的用于灌溉。还有一点也很明显,立面系统上设计了由倾斜的遮阳百叶构成的编织网系统,以尽量减少东面的阳光暴晒和眩光,西晒被老布里斯班会展中心所阻挡,中庭天窗将经过过滤的日光引入会展中心中庭的深处。

响应客户与用户需求

上面提到了客户响应。用户响应包括如下两条:第一次重大会议“2012年抗菌药物会议”的CEO杰夫·库姆斯在描述格雷街布里斯班会展中心时写道,“这是我们见过的世界上同等规模设施中最好的会展设施”;“2012年SETE APOSE会议”的CEO蕾妮·乔利说:“该中心的布局堪称完美……房间和礼堂进入方便,对我们的全体会议讲座和同期举办的会议来说非常灵活”。


Architects: Cox Rayner Architects

Location: Brisbane, Australia

Client: South Bank Corporation

Photographs: Angus Martin Photography, Christopher Frederick Jones, Florian Groehn Photography

From the architect.

BCEC on Grey Street is a major expansion of the Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre (1996), but also a completion of the concept of the original building which was discontinued in 1996 due to a then dispersal of Government funds to other public projects.

The time delay has significantly befitted the overall facility in enabling its elements to meet the changed demands for conventions toward smaller, more boutique and more self-contained venues combining auditoria, meeting and exhibition spaces within discrete parcels.

The design albeit by the same architects, does not mimic the original but, reflects the changed functional demands in a new form and expression. This expression also responds to a site some 200 metres long and only 30 metres wide, creating what we refer to as an ‘architectural sentence’ of ‘clauses’ and ‘punctuations’ in both elevation and corresponding roofscape. In this way a previously impoverished portion of Grey Street is enlivened, the building connecting the historical rail station it overlooks with the commercial and hotel heart of South Bank.

Conceptual Framework

The primary philosophical aspirations were to reflect a new age of convention formats than those which prevailed in the 1990s, and to animate an alienated portion of South Bank’s main Grey Street by enlivenment using the concept of an ‘architectural sentence’. The first aspiration meant contrasting with the original BCEC architectural language which our practice had formerly done, and creating a new language in which the functional parts are strongly expressed to the street, and transparently seen to within.

The second aspiration entailed animating an unusually long and narrow site (200m x 30m) with a sequence of undulating roof scales and a series of elevational articulations, comparable to both a sentence in literature or stanza in music. Within the major shifts in language corresponding with part-theatres, foyers, meeting spaces, function terraces – are further articulations, such as visual penetrations to the theatres enabling external outlook from them.

Public and Cultural Benefits

BCEC on Grey Street has helped ‘rescue’ a downgraded yet critical piece of Grey Street that links the city’s cultural centre with the urban heart of South Bank. It has significantly enhanced public safety of the street (as is testified by neighbouring QPAC) through its accessibility and transparency.

It has created a new public access path over the South Bank railway, linking South Bank to West End, and below the railway in a through-corridor which penetrates the original building’s carpark. Most significantly, it has facilitated Brisbane’s ability to stage types of integrated conventions and performances unavailable in any other Australian city, enabling BCEC complex to remain by far Australia’s most successful convention centre commercially and in terms of visitation.

Relationship of Built Form to Context

The strong philosophical approach and architectural resolution of contextual relationship is captured in the above descriptions, including to the street, to the original building it is grafted with, and to the end where it opens out towards.

Program Resolution

The program primarily resolved the long and cross-section to which the plan responds, rather than the converse. The governing constraints were the elevated railway level and the existing BCEC plaza level. The decisive ‘move’ was the overlapping stacking of the two 600 + 400 seat theatres in such a way as to enable all four functional levels to flexibly access the theatres forming ‘self-contained’ convention/exhibition venues.

Allied Disciplines

The key collaboration was with the artist Bruce Reynolds who created three series of works generating different historical and geographical interpretations of the South Bank context, one a series of faceted sculptures, one a backdrop of art recesses, and one the ‘cliff’ wall along which people climb (fronting the rail corridor) through a sequence of atrium spaces.

Cost/Value Outcome

The project budget was $140 million. In the words of BCEC’s CEO the value has been expressed as: “Boutique in concept, dramatic in architecture….the opening was a period of frenetic activity with more than 300 event bookings which will deliver $93 million in one year alone to the Queensland economy”. BCEC on Grey Street was responsible for the whole centre recording in 2012 its highest revenue since opening in 1995.

Sustainability

Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre is one of only two Australian convention centres with a 5 Star Green Star (Design) rating with the Green Building Council of Australia. It was designed to utilise the energy capacity of the existing Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre and does not have any additional water chilling plant. The system also utilises solar hot water generation to not increase energy demands on the convention centre’s existing system. The airconditioning system is tailored to occupation of the multiple boutique spaces such that there is minimal, if any, wastage.

All fixed and loose furnishings are sourced from sustainable and recyclable materials, and a vast underground water tank supplies the Centre’s non-potable water, with excess used for irrigation. As is also evident, the façade system is designed with a woven mesh system of angled solar blades shaped to minimise eastern sun exposure and glare, the western solar exposure being blocked by the existing BCEC and atrium skylights providing filtered daylight to the atrium depth of the centre.

Response to Client and User Needs

Client response is mentioned above. User responses include from the first major convention ‘Antimicrobials 2012’ CEO Geoff Coombs describing in writing BCEC on Grey Street as “the best conference facility we have experienced for its size in the world”, and the ‘SETE APOSE 2012’ CEO Renee Jolly stating: “The layout of the centre was perfect…the rooms and auditoria were easily accessible and flexible for our program of plenary lectures and concurrent meeting sessions”.