中国,江苏,南京,鼓楼医院 / Lemanarc SA

建筑师: Lemanarc SA

地点:中国江苏省南京市,鼓楼,中山北路&鼓楼广场

主管建筑师:Vincent Zhengmao Zhang

面积:230,000 sqm

年份:2012

摄影:Courtesy of Lemanarc SA

文字来自建筑师。南京鼓楼医院由加拿大传教士麦克林大夫创立,位于南京市区中心。它是中国最负盛名的医院之一。

现代医学技术的发展以及城市人口的不断增加推动了医院的早期扩建。尽管这些扩建项目规模庞大,但是其中大部分仍然仅仅是对于原有功能的简单的、具有应急性质的扩建,无法满足迅速增长的医疗服务需求。因此,许多楼层的功能格局没有得到适当的布置,也没有形成利于医院整体运作的合理化路线。例如,现有的门诊位于中山路东侧,与医院的主楼相连,只能通过一条狭窄的地下通道往返,使病人、家属和医护人员都感到极为不便。

2004年,城市人口数量增多以及生活水平提高使人们对于医疗服务的需求迅速攀升,为了应对这种增长的需求,鼓楼医院打算利用中山路与天津路之间的一块32000平方米的地块实施一次全新的扩建。紧随其后再对现有的平面格局与功能进行重新布置和彻底翻修。

经过多次与院方的讨论和磋商,我们以Vincent Zhang(张万桑)为首的设计团队创造了一个意义深远的长期发展项目。根据项目情况,共有2800张床位,其中1600张是新扩建项目提供的。每天门诊量计划达1万人。而整个医院的总建筑面积是23000平方米。

从规模上来看,本项目的总建筑面积实际上等于高420米、共88层的金茂大厦,金茂大厦正是中国最高的建筑。但与人们对于一般高层医院建筑的期望不同,我们做出了一种看似奇怪的选择:建筑楼层并非叠放而成,也没有较高的容积率,我们决定‘抛开一切’创造一系列花园,使容积率为5.2。这种对于低矮建筑的偏爱刚好与当时的设计趋势相违背,当时对于摩天大楼的狂热主导了建筑界。但是目前看来,我们无疑做了一个正确无比的决定,低矮的设计不仅减少了垂直交通的压力(这是普通大型医院建筑甩不脱的难题),也创造了大面积的适宜人们使用的城市空间。

但是,由此产生的好处并不是白来的。事实上,建筑师因为选择了这样一个更为分散的低矮建筑设计方式而面临着各种挑战:从为新建区域进行布局、理解医院的操作程序与规则并进行分析,再到对新医院的理想的运营模式进行规划。更重要的是,它要求我们重新考虑传承医学文化的可能性,并探索医疗服务的新特点。


Architects: Lemanarc SA

Location: Zhongshan North Road & Drum Tower Square, Gulou, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Architect In Charge: Vincent Zhengmao Zhang

Area: 230,000 sqm

Year: 2012

Photographs: Courtesy of Lemanarc SA

From the architect. Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, founded by Canadian Missionary Dr. Macklin, is located in the downtown center of Nanjing city. It is one of the most renowned hospital in China.

The earlier expansions of the hospital was driven by the of development of modern medical technology as well as the increasing municipal population. Despite the remarkable scales, most of these early expansions are hardly more than simple and urgent addition and extension of existing function to meet the rapidly increasing need for medical service. As a result, the functional layout of many floors are not well organized and streamlined for the operation of the hospital as a whole. For instance, the existing outpatient department is on the east side of Zhongshan Rd, connected with the main buildings of the hospital, which is on the west side, only through a narrow underground passageway, which makes extra inconvenience to both patients and staffs.

In the year 2004, in answering the rapidly surging demand for medical service by a larger and wealthier municipal population,  Drumtower hospital planned to implement a new expansion using a 32,000 sqm site between Zhongshan Rd. and Tianjin Rd. The expansion project will also be followed by a reorganization and overhaul of the existing layout and functions.

After many discussion and consultation with the hospital client, our design team led by Vincent Zhang helped in making a insightful long-term developing project. According to the project, a total of 2800 beds will be served, of which 1600 is provided by the new expansion. Daily outpatient is planned to reach 10,000 person. And the overall  gross floor area of the hospital is 230,00 m2.

Scalewise, the project is in fact equal to the GFA of the 420m, 88-floor Jinmao Tower, the highest building of China back then. But contrary to the general expectation of a high rise hospital building, we made a seemingly surprising choice:  instead of stacking floors one upon another and resulting in a high floor area ratio, we decided to ‘lay it down’ to create a series of gardens at the floor area ratio of 5.2. Such preference for low rise building went squarely against the design trend at that time, which is dominated by the frenzy for skyscrapers. But seen at present, it is quite sure that we have made a right decision, for the low rise plan not only reduced the stress on vertical traffic—which is a constant trouble for large general hospitals, but also creates large areas of urban space with human scales.

But the benefits does not come for free. Indeed, by choosing a more scattered, low rise plan, the architects were facing various challenges: from  organizing the arrangement for the newly built areas, understanding and  analyzing the operation and rules of the hospital, to the planning of ideal operating model for the new hospital. And more importantly,  it requires us to reconsider the possibility of  inheriting the medical culture and explore the new identity of medical service.