美国,洛杉矶,大屠杀博物馆 / Belzberg Architects

建筑师: Belzberg Architects

地点:美国洛杉矶,100 The Grove Drive

总建筑师:Hagy Belzberg

设计组:Andrew Atwood, Barry Gartin, Brock DeSmit, Carina Bien-Wilner , Christopher Arntzen, Cory Taylor, Daniel Rentsch, David Cheung, Eric Stimmel, Erik Sollom, Justin Brechtel, Philip Lee, Lauren Zuzack

面积:27,000 sqm

年份:2010

摄影: Iwan Baan, Benny Chan

项目经理: Aaron Leppanen

结构: William Koh & Associates

承包商: Winters-Schram

机械工程: John Dorius & Associates

电气工程: A&F Consulting Engineers

沼气工程: Carlin Environmental

环境工程师: Enviropro, Inc.

文字介绍来自建筑师。这栋全新的建筑——洛杉矶大屠杀博物馆(LAMOTH)坐落在一座公园内,与现有的洛杉矶大屠杀纪念碑相邻。设计策略的重中之重就是将这栋建筑与周围开放式的公园景观和谐地融合在一起。这座博物馆建在地下,这样公园的景观便依然能够呈现在建筑的屋顶上方。现有的公园小路作为连接元素,将公园的行人与为博物馆游客而建的全新循环通道融合在一起。

这些小路经过不断地设计变化,最终融入到这栋建筑中来,建筑师专门将其打造为地面图案。这些图案结构延续在博物馆的画廊上方,将公园的景观和人行道进一步连在一起。建筑师保留了公园的建设材料,并将其延伸至博物馆区域,使混凝土和植被的色彩、质地与泛太平洋公园中采用的现有材料融为一体。这些简单的变化都为博物馆营造了一个与众不同的立面,同时也保持了公园的地形和景观。这座博物馆从景观中浮现出来,作为独立的曲面混凝土墙体结构呈现在世人面前,经过分裂和雕琢,它又融入地面,形成了博物馆的入口。建筑师运用可持续发展系统和材料进行设计和建造,目前洛杉矶大屠杀博物馆的运营正在步入正轨,有望获得美国绿色建筑委员会的LEED(能源与环境建筑认证系统)金级认证。

循环通道的设计策略

游客们在与公园相邻的下客区便开始了他们的参观行程。他们首先听到和看到的全都是孩子们在公园里嬉戏玩耍、与家人在公园里野餐时传来的阵阵欢声笑语以及运动的场景。由于这栋建筑的部分结构建造在草木繁茂的公园景观之下,因而当参观者们进入这栋建筑中、沿着长长的下坡道行进时,仍然需要在视听方面营造一种与公园相连的、平缓的变化过程。当游客进入建筑时,便可以感受到这种转变过程的顶点——从充满乐趣的、自由自在的公园氛围转变为一系列孤立的空间中,这里充斥着影像档案记录。

作为设计策略的一部分,建筑师强调了建筑内容与景观环境之间的二元关系,促使游客增强了在博物馆内部的感受,如寓言般地将这种欧洲森林狂欢者享受公园景观的亲近感与上世纪三四十年代发生过残酷可怕事件的场地联系在一起。参观者们上行至现有的纪念碑层面便可以离开博物馆,也便能够再次从视听角度感受到与公园环境的关联。

第一个展览空间内摆放着一张大型的互动式桌子,模仿概念化的“社区”或餐桌理念。这一展区将众多的游客汇集到一起,来参观这次互动式的展览。随着参观者们逐渐下行进入后面的展览空间,内部走廊的光线越来越昏暗,在下一个展厅里,两个独立的展览将人群分开——缩小了附近人群所形成的“团体”。随着参观者穿过第三个空间进入第四个空间,可以感受到地板仍然在向下延伸,周围的光线变得愈加稀少,参观者也渐渐被引入一个名为“集中营”的空间。

这里的天花板非常低,房间几乎完全是由独立的视频监视器所照亮的——视频监视器大约有一个笔记本的大小——这限制了参观者的视线。参观者们现在被限制在这间博物馆里最孤立、最黑暗、体量最集中的地下区域。从这一点再往前行进,楼层水平高度开始不断上升,自然光线再次渗透到建筑内部,人们又一次寻找到熟悉的空间舒适感。当参观者们最后上行至现有纪念碑的位置时,自由公园绿地的景色与喧闹声又再次扑面而来。


Architects: Belzberg Architects

Location: 100 The Grove Drive, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Architect In Charge: Hagy Belzberg

Design Team: Andrew Atwood, Barry Gartin, Brock DeSmit, Carina Bien-Wilner , Christopher Arntzen, Cory Taylor, Daniel Rentsch, David Cheung, Eric Stimmel, Erik Sollom, Justin Brechtel, Philip Lee, Lauren Zuzack

Area: 27,000 sqm

Year: 2010

Photographs: Iwan Baan, Benny Chan

Project Manager: Aaron Leppanen

Structural: William Koh & Associates

Contractor: Winters-Schram

Mechanical: John Dorius & Associates

Electrical: A&F Consulting Engineers

Methane Engineer: Carlin Environmental

Environmental Engineer: Enviropro, Inc.

From the architect. The new building for the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust (LAMOTH) is located within a public park, adjacent to the existing Los Angeles Holocaust Memorial.  Paramount to the design strategy is the integration of the building into the surrounding open, park landscape. The museum is submerged into the ground allowing the park’s landscape to continue over the roof of the structure.  Existing park pathways are used as connective elements to integrate the pedestrian flow of the park with the new circulation for museum visitors.

The pathways are morphed onto the building and appropriated as surface patterning.  The patterning continues above the museum’s galleries, further connecting the park’s landscape and pedestrian paths. By maintaining the material pallet of the park and extending it onto the museum, the hues and textures of concrete and vegetation blend with the existing material palette of Pan Pacific Park.  These simple moves create a distinctive façade for the museum while maintaining the parks topography and landscape.  The museum emerges from the landscape as a single, curving concrete wall that splits and carves into the ground to form the entry.  Designed and constructed with sustainable systems and materials, the LAMOTH building is on track to receive a LEED Gold Certification from the US Green Building Council.

Circulatory Strategy:

Patrons begin their procession at the drop off adjacent to the park.  Their approach is pervaded by sounds and sights of laughter and sport—of kids playing in the park and picnicking with their families.  Because the building is partially submerged beneath the grassy, park landscape, entry to the building entails a gradual deterioration of this visual and auditory connection to the park while descending a long ramp.  Upon entering, visitors experience the culmination of their transition from a playful and unrestrained, public park atmosphere to a series of isolated spaces saturated with photographic archival imagery.

As part of the design strategy, this dichotomous relationship between building content and landscape context is emphasized to bolster the experience inside the museum and allegorically correlate the proximity with which European forest revelers enjoying public parks were to sites of horrific and inhumane acts being carried out in 1930’s and 40’s.  Visitors exit the museum by ascending up to the level of the existing monument, regaining the visual and auditory connection with the park environs.

The first room incorporates a large, single interactive table, mimicking a conceptual “community” or dinner table. The exhibit brings a large group of patrons together around one interactive exhibit.  The lighting of the interior galleries dim as the visitor steps down into the subsequent rooms where two separate exhibits display divide the singular crowd—diminishing the “community” provided by people nearby.  Through the third room and into the fourth, the floor continues to step down as ambient lighting becomes scarcer leading individuals to the room titled, “Concentration Camps.”

The ceiling is low, and the room is almost entirely illuminated by individual video-monitors—about the size of a notebook—which limits viewing to a single spectator.  The visitor is now confined to the most isolated, darkest and volumetrically concentrated underground area in the museum.  The journey from this point forward is one of ascension and of finding the comfort of familiar space as floor levels begin to rise and natural lights begins to penetrate the interior once again.  The final ascent up to the existing monument is filled with sights and sounds of unrestricted park land.