印度,孟买,希瓦吉国际机场2号航站楼 / SOM

建筑师: SOM

地点:印度孟买,Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (BOM)

设计合伙人:Roger Duffy

资深设计建筑师:Scott Duncan

设计建筑师:Peter Lefkovits

技术建筑师:Narin Gobindranauth

资深航空规划师:Derek Moore

年份:2014

摄影:Robert Polidori, SOM

执行合伙人:Anthony Vacchione

结构主管:Charles Besjak

结构工程师:Preetam Biswas

结构工程:Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

项目经理、主管:Laura Ettelman

名义建筑师与工程师:Larsen & Toubro Limited

机电工程师:Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

照明设计:Brandston Partnership Inc.

音效:Cerami & Associates

传播、IT、安防与特殊系统:Mulvey & Banani

道路标识:Pentagram & Entro Communication

行李操作:BNP Associates

垂直交通:Van Deusen & Associates

文化设计合作:Abu Jani – Sandeep Khosla

客户:GVK, Mumbai International Airport Pvt. Ltd.

文字介绍来自建筑师。十年之前,位于孟买的贾特拉帕蒂•希瓦吉国际机场每年需要接待旅客600万人次;而时至今日,需要接待的旅客数量几乎是这一数字的5倍。作为印度的金融之都——孟买的崛起、国家的迅速发展壮大以及经济流动的中产阶级,这些方面的变化都使得现有的机场基础设施无法满足不断增长的印度国内外交通量的需求,导致延误情况时有发生。建筑师将旅客和飞机所交织的复杂网络巧妙地融合成了一个直观而且能够满足该地区飞速发展需求的设计方案,从而使新建的2号航站楼奠定了机场成为印度杰出门户的地位。

贾特拉帕蒂•希瓦吉国际机场2号航站楼开辟了440万平方英尺的全新空间,每年的旅客吞吐量可达4000万人次,24小时全天候状态运营。这座航站楼将印度国内的客运服务和国际的客运服务融合在一起,不仅优化了航站楼的运营状态,同时也减少了旅客的步行距离。传统的印度凉亭结构激发了建筑师的设计灵感,这座全新的4层航站楼堆叠成一个庞大的“客运枢纽建筑”或是中央处理平台,下面则是用途广泛、模块化的大厅。建筑师并没有将航站楼的各项功能彼此分隔开来,所有的大厅都是从中央处理核心区域向外辐射的,因此这些大厅非常容易进行重新构造,人们可以在国际航班与国内航班之间自由穿梭。

航站楼不仅标志着孟买掌握了最新的全球高科技,其结构也充分呼应了当地的地理环境、历史和文化。设计雅致的路边送客区专为大批带着祝福前来送别的人们而设计,满足了印度举行欢迎和送别仪式的传统需要。各个区域的格局和材质与整个航站楼的建筑设计完美地融为一体。从航站楼的柱子和屋顶表面的铰接式平顶面板,到让阳光如星辉般洒满大厅的精致的哥哩砖墙窗格,2号航站楼从现代化机场的角度重新审视着传统。

机场在孟买所处的优越的地理位置决定了它在城市中无法撼动的地位,而孟买也正在经历着快速的发展和重建。2号航站楼则是这场复兴过程中具有非凡意义的一个组成部分,它成为周边地区基础设施的坚实支柱,也是一栋地标性建筑。通过融入现有的交通脉络、借助同时发展起来的服务于机场的新公路网以深化交通联系。2号航站楼将孟买南部的历史中心与东部、北部这两个迅速发展的城市周边区域交织在一起。同时该市也计划在2号航站楼入口的适当位置修建地铁站,继续为这座日益发展壮大的城市提供连通性。

印度的门户

国内外的旅客都需要通过一条宽阔的高架路从四层高的地方进入位于航站楼。在入口处这条道路分叉,为需要举行送别仪式的人们预留出足够的空间。从旅客踏进航站楼的那一刻起,航站楼便为旅客营造了一种宾至如归的氛围。在上方,航站楼的屋顶不断延伸,覆盖了所有的到达通道,使旅客及迎来送往的宾朋免受孟买炎热天气和变幻无常的季风天气的影响。50英尺高的玻璃斜拉墙体——这是世界上最长的斜拉墙体结构——与值机大厅高耸的空间相通。根据印度航空条例,非旅客不能进入航站楼,这样透明的立面便可以让他们目送着朋友和亲人离开。

当旅客们进入航站楼里面时,便来到了一个温暖、明亮的空间,它位于由一系列多层圆柱支撑的大跨度的屋顶下方。在30根蘑菇式柱子下面营造这种巨大的空间,让人们联想起传统地域性建筑中的空中亭台以及内院。光线透过顶棚花格镶板内镶嵌着的小圆盘状彩色玻璃,点缀着下方的大厅。斑斓的色彩设计让人们联想起孔雀——那是印度的国鸟,也是机场的标志。

值机大厅通向一间零售中心——旅客们可以在这个公共空间里购物、就餐,并且透过开阔的落地窗目送飞机起飞。这些商业广场位于大厅和航站楼中心交汇点的中心位置,为靠近登机闸口的位置提供了一处活动焦点。在这些空间内部以及贯穿大厅的区域内,所有固定物和细节的设计都彰显了文化的气息,例如受荷花的启发所定制的枝形吊灯、由当地艺术家创造的传统的马赛克镜子作品,为旅客感受到机场之外的社会和文化提供了基础。地域性的艺术品和手工制品陈列在中央多层的艺术墙上,从上部天窗照进来的阳光将其照亮。当地艺术和文化的流行加上暖色调和优雅风格的使用,提升了航站楼的整体氛围,摆脱了那种典型而无趣的机场体验。

尽管这座航站楼有四层,灯光槽和多层天井互相连接在一起保证了光线能够渗透到建筑物的低层区域,不断让旅客感受到周围的城市和风景。黄昏时分,整栋建筑从内部被照亮,这座航站楼就像一盏经过精雕细琢过的枝形吊灯一样绚烂夺目。

灵活的足迹

这座新航站楼的施工地点离现有航站楼非常近,在建造过程中必须保证现有航站楼能够全面运转。建造地点所设定的一些要求激发了建筑师的灵感,建筑师将航站楼设计成细长的X形结构,这样既能环绕在现有结构的周围,又能够融合模块化的设计方案,从而能够满足快速的分期施工的需要。

这种创新的结构将重要的旅客登机程序、行李托运、零售/就餐功能在航站楼的中心位置整合在一起。在每一层,放射状支柱的设计方案使得旅客能以最短的步行距离从航站楼中心位置到达登机区,同时也能最大限度地扩大航站楼登机口的周长。


Architects: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

Location: Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (BOM), Mumbai, India

Design Partner: Roger Duffy

Senior Design Architect: Scott Duncan

Design Architect : Peter Lefkovits

Technical Architect: Narin Gobindranauth

Senior Aviation Planner: Derek Moore

Year: 2014

Photographs: Robert Polidori, SOM

Managing Partner: Anthony Vacchione

Structural Director: Charles Besjak

Structural Engineer: Preetam Biswas

Structural Engineering: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

Project Manager, Director: Laura Ettelman

Architect And Engineer Of Record: Larsen & Toubro Limited

Mep Engineer: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

Lighting Design: Brandston Partnership Inc.

Acoustics: Cerami & Associates

Communication, It, Security & Special Sustems: Mulvey & Banani

Signage & Wayfinding: Pentagram & Entro Communication

Baggage Handling: BNP Associates

Verical Transportation: Van Deusen & Associates

Cultural Design Collaboration: Abu Jani - Sandeep Khosla

Client: GVK, Mumbai International Airport Pvt. Ltd.

From the architect. Ten years ago, Mumbai’s Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport welcomed six million passengers per year through its gates; today it serves nearly five times that number. With the city’s emergence as India’s financial capital and the country’s rapidly expanding and economically mobile middle class, the existing airport infrastructure proved unable to support the growing volume of domestic and global traffic, resulting in frequent delays. By orchestrating the complex web of passengers and planes into a design that feels intuitive and responds to the region’s rocketing growth, the new Terminal 2 asserts the airport’s place as a preeminent gateway to India.

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2 adds 4.4 million square feet of new space to accommodate 40 million passengers per year, operating 24 hours a day. The terminal combines international and domestic passenger services under one roof, optimizing terminal operations and reducing passenger walking distances. Inspired by the form of traditional Indian pavilions, the new four-story terminal stacks a grand “headhouse,” or central processing podium, on top of highly adaptable and modular concourses below. Rather than compartmentalizing terminal functions, all concourses radiate outwards from a central processing core and are therefore easily reconfigured to “swing” between serving domestic flights or international flights.

But just as the terminal celebrates a new global, high-tech identity for Mumbai, the structure is imbued with responses to the local setting, history, and culture. Gracious curbside drop-off zones designed for large parties of accompanying well-wishers accommodate traditional Indian arrival and departure ceremonies. Regional patterns and textures are subtly integrated into the terminal’s architecture at all scales. From the articulated coffered treatment on the headhouse columns and roof surfaces to the intricate jali window screens that filter dappled light into the concourses, Terminal 2 demonstrates the potential for a modern airport to view tradition anew.

The prominent location of the airport within the city of Mumbai bestows it with a strong presence within a portion of the city that is experiencing rapid growth and redevelopment. Terminal 2 is a significant part of this renaissance as an infrastructural anchor for the neighborhood, and as a landmark within the surrounding community. By integrating into the existing transportation fabric and by furthering connectivity through the simultaneous development of a new road network to service the airport, the terminal helps knit together the historic heart of Mumbai to the south with the city’s burgeoning peripheries to the east and north. Plans are also in place for the construction of an underground metro station at the terminal’s entrance, providing further connectivity to the growing city.

A Gateway to India

All international and domestic passengers enter the terminal headhouse on the fourth floor, accessed from a sweeping elevated road. At the entrance, the lanes split, making room for wide drop-off curbs with ample space for departure rituals. From the moment of arrival, the terminal embraces travelers. Above, the headhouse roof extends to cover the entire arrivals roadway, protecting passengers and their guests from Mumbai’s heat and unpredictable monsoon weather. A 50-foot-tall glass cable-stayed wall—the longest in the world—opens to the soaring space of the check-in hall. The transparent facade also allows accompanying well-wishers, who must remain outside of the terminal due to Indian aviation regulations, to watch as their friends and family depart.

Once inside, travelers enter a warm, light-filled chamber, sheltered underneath a long-span roof supported by an array of multi-story columns. The monumental spaces created beneath the thirty mushrooming columns call to mind the airy pavilions and interior courtyards of traditional regional architecture. Small disks of colorful glass recessed within the canopy’s coffers speckle the hall below with light. The constellation of colors makes reference to the peacock, the national bird of India, and the symbol of the airport.

The check-in hall leads to a retail hub—a common space that allows passengers to shop, eat, and watch planes take off though expansive, floor-to- ceiling windows. Centrally located at the junction of the concourses and the terminal core, these commercial plazas provide a focal point of activity in close proximity to the gates. Within these spaces and throughout the concourses, culturally referential fixtures and details, such as custom chandeliers inspired by the lotus flower and traditional mirror mosaic work created by local artists, ground the traveler to a community and culture beyond the airport. Regional artwork and artifacts are displayed on a central, multi-story Art Wall, illuminated by skylights above. The prevalence of local art and culture, coupled with the use of warm colors and elegant accents, elevates the ambience of terminal beyond the typical, often unimaginative airport experience.

Although the terminal is four stories, interconnecting light slots and multi-story light wells ensure that light penetrates into the lower floors of the building, acting as a constant reminder of the surrounding city and landscape. At dusk, illuminated from within, the terminal glows like a sculpted chandelier.

A Flexible Footprint

The construction site of the new terminal building was located in close proximity to the existing terminal which had to remain fully operational during construction. This site requirement inspired the elongated X-shape plan of the terminal, which could both mold around existing structures and incorporate modular designs to accommodate rapid and phased construction.

This innovative form also allows for the consolidation of important passenger processing, baggage handling, and retail/dining functions at the center of the terminal. On each floor, radiating piers permit the shortest possible walking distances from the center of the terminal to boarding areas, while also maximizing the terminal’s perimeter for aircraft gates.