巴西,圣保罗,市区的周末度假屋 / SPBR

建筑师: SPBR

地点:巴西圣保罗

负责建筑师:Angelo Bucci

设计组:Nilton Suenaga, Tatiana Ozzetti, Ciro Miguel, Eric Ennser, João Paulo Meirelles de Faria, Juliana Braga, Fernanda Cavallaro, Victor Próspero

面积:183 sqm

年份:2013

摄影: Nelson Kon

结构工程师:Ibsen Puleo Uvo

基础工程师:Apoio Assessoria e Projeto de Fundações – José Luiz de Paulo Eduardo

岩土工程勘察:Engesolos Engenharia de Solos e Fundações

暖通与电气:Plumbing And Electrical JPD Projetos de Instalações – Jairo Paixão Daniel, Joel Paixão Daniel, Jamir Paixão Daniel, Jaime Paixão Daniel Filho

景观设计师:Raul Pereira

照明:Reka – Ricardo Heder

总承包商: José Antonio Queijo Felix

承包商:Theobaldo Bremenkamp, Reinaldo Francisco Ramos [Renner]

木制品:Móveis AEME – Agostinho Alves Moreira

钢结构:Carlos Augusto Stefani

用地面积:269,50 sqm

文字来自建筑师。圣保罗的空中泳池。

云、毛毛雨、大雨、雪或冰雹,水的各种物理状态都与天空有关。

然而,如果让我们思考(游泳)池的设计,我们的想象力就会自动开始向地下发掘。海洋、湖泊和池塘的位置解释了我们朝着这个方向考虑的原因:从本质上讲,水池就如同一片湖。这么想是有道理的,图像对应了文字和静静地栖息在地面上的水。水定义了表面。

但是如果我提到一种特定类型的水池,譬如水箱、水塔,我们首先能想到一个架高的盛水容器、一个高于地面的水池。在这种情况下,为了满足水管供水需求,需要有一定的静水压力。水位制约了潜在的可能性。

在地面上行走时,我们可以问:表面在哪里?从这个词的具体意义来说,表面没有层次,也没有厚度。然而,如果一个人走在圣保罗(或纽约)这样的城市里,地面不再相当于表面了。有一些地方,自从建起了高楼大厦就常年被阴影所覆盖,已经有几十年没见过阳光了。

在这个特殊的建筑基地上,相邻建筑的平均高度都有6米高。两侧都没有设置退进。东侧的相邻建筑整个头午都遮住了我们的基地,而到了下午又轮到西侧的相邻建筑遮住这里。因此,如果能建起一座泳池,整天都曝露在日光之下,定义其表面就至关重要:它必须比地面高出6米。

这里的假设就像是在水塔中游泳,并享受这种活动,以此作为设计的可能性。而更多的水的“状态”则与圣保罗的天空有关。

城市中的周末度假屋

圣保罗是一个人口达2000万的大都市。市区离海岸大约有一个小时的路程。由于交通拥堵严重,居民每天都得花几个小时的时间在每天出行的路上。周末,尤其是在夏天,成千上万的居民开车到海滩,更是造成了道路堵塞。

为了避免在周末期间被堵在路上,我们收到了一个令人意想不到却又合情合理的设计请求:设计一座位于圣保罗市区的周末度假屋。

作为追求低建筑容积率的设计方法,游泳池、日光浴室和花园是这个项目的主要元素。在一个恰如其分地颠倒过来的结构层次中,本案的其他功能均起到了补充的作用:卧室、看门人的小公寓以及烹饪和接待朋友的空间。

基地位于两条城市主干道正中央,一条是Avenida Faria Lima大道,另一条是建于派恩洛斯河岸边的城市基础设施轴线(公路、铁路线)。同时,该基地正位于圆锥形机场区下方,这意味着每7分钟左右就会有来自里约热内卢的航班从上空飞过。

泳池和日光浴室为互相平行的体量。两个体量之间有1米宽的距离。12米的跨度一侧面对着支撑泳池的大梁,另一侧是支撑日光浴室以及下方楼层的大梁。从结构上看,泳池的体积与居住空间的体积保持着平衡。换句话说就是海水与海滩之间的平衡。

地面一直不设置任何结构,以达到最大的花园面积比。因此,形成了三个拥有不同氛围的楼层:地面(内部花园,由基地边界围绕)、公寓(唯一的室内空间,漂浮在地面上方,泳池下方),以及屋顶(游泳池和日光浴室,开放的或全景空间)。

该建筑及其功能有别于传统建筑项目的焦点,体现在两个方面:在大都市里也能享受周末的美好时光,成了周末的过夜场所;在大房子中通常被认为是次级元素的构件在这里成为基本的组成成分。


Architects: SPBR

Location: São Paulo, Brazil

Architect In Charge: Angelo Bucci

Design Team: Nilton Suenaga, Tatiana Ozzetti, Ciro Miguel, Eric Ennser, João Paulo Meirelles de Faria, Juliana Braga, Fernanda Cavallaro, Victor Próspero

Area: 183 sqm

Year: 2013

Photographs: Nelson Kon

Structural Engineer: Ibsen Puleo Uvo

Foundation Engineer: Apoio Assessoria e Projeto de Fundações - José Luiz de Paulo Eduardo

Geotechnical Investigation: Engesolos Engenharia de Solos e Fundações

Plumbing And Electrical: Plumbing And Electrical JPD Projetos de Instalações - Jairo Paixão Daniel, Joel Paixão Daniel, Jamir Paixão Daniel, Jaime Paixão Daniel Filho

Landscape Architect: Raul Pereira

Lighting: Reka - Ricardo Heder

General Contractor: José Antonio Queijo Felix

Constructor: Theobaldo Bremenkamp, Reinaldo Francisco Ramos [Renner]

Woodworks: Móveis AEME - Agostinho Alves Moreira

Steelworks: Carlos Augusto Stefani

Site Area: 269,50 sqm

From the architect. DUG INTO THE AIR – A SWIMMING POOL IN SÃO PAULO

Clouds, drizzle, rain, snow or hail, in all its physical states water is related to sky.

However, if we are requested to think about a [swimming] pool, our imagination automatically starts to dig into the ground. Seas, lakes, and ponds explain the reason we react in that direction: essentially, a pool fells like a piece of a lake. It makes sense, the image corresponds to the word, water that rests smoothly on the ground. Water defines the surface.

But if I mention a specific type of pool, a water tank or a water tower, we first imagine an elevated volume of water, a pool detached from the ground level. In this case, hydrostatic pressure is a requirement to fulfill pipes, to supply water. Water level holds a potential possibility.

While walking on the ground,we could ask: where is the surface? In the specific sense of the word, surface has no layers or thickness. However, if one walks in a city like São Paulo [or New York], the ground level does not correspond to the surface anymore. There are some pieces of the ground that haven’t been touched by the sunlight for decades since buildings have permanently shaded them.

In this specific site, the neighborhood’s average height is defined by the zoning code: 6 m high. No side setbacks are required. The east neighbor building shades our site the entire morning until noon, when the west neighbor building starts to shade it for the whole afternoon. Therefore, if there is a pool to be built, exposed to the sunlight the whole day, it is crucial to define its surface: six meters above the ground level.

The assumption here is like to swim in a water tower and to enjoy that potential as a design possibility. One more water ‘state’ related to the sky of São Paulo.

A WEEKEND HOUSE IN THE CITY

São Paulo is a metropolis of 20 million people. It is approximately one hour from the coast. Because of severe traffic jams, its inhabitants spend hours commuting every day. On weekends, especially in the summer, hundreds of thousands drive to the beach causing jams on the roads as well.

In order to avoid being stuck in traffic during weekends, we received an unexpected but rather logical demand as a counterflow action: a weekend house in downtown São Paulo.

As an anti-FAR [floor area ratio] approach, a swimming pool, a solarium and a garden are the main elements of this project. In a properly inverted hierarchy, everything else on this program is complementary: a bedroom, a small apartment for a caretaker, and a space to cook and receive friends.

The site is very central, between an arterial avenue, Avenida Faria Lima, and a metropolitan infrastructural axis [road and railway] built on the Pinheiros river shore. Also, the site is exactly under the airport conical zone, meaning all flights coming from Rio de Janeiro fly over the site about each 7 minutes.

Pool and solarium were displayed as parallel volumes. Two columns were located in the 1 m wide gap between them. The 12 m span is faced on one side by beams supporting the pool and on the other by beams that support the solarium and also hang the floor underneath. Structurally, the mass of the pool counterweights the volume which holds inhabited spaces. In other words, water is balanced by the beach.

The ground level was kept free from any construction in order to achieve the maximum garden area ratio. As a result there are three different layers or three levels for three different moods: ground level [garden – introspective or encompassed by the site limits], apartment level [the only indoor space floating above the ground and underneath the pool], and rooftop [swimming pool and solarium, an extroverted or panoramic space].

This building and its program differs from the focus of traditional architectural projects in two ways: the metropolis becomes a possible place to stay and enjoy during the weekends and elements generally considered secondary in a big house become fundamental components.