新加坡,星商业文化综合体 / Andrew Bromberg of Aedas

建筑师:Andrew Bromberg of Aedas

地点:新加坡,1 Vista Exchange Green

客户:Rock Productions Pte Ltd and CapitaMalls Asia Limited

面积:62,000 sqm

年份:2012

摄影:Aedas

文字来自建筑师。该项目旨在成为一个充满活力的城市据点,它拥有一家5000座的文化剧场和以餐饮为主的零售部门,两者相互协作,努力提高彼此的生存与发展能力。

建筑基地位于新加坡Buona Vista一个更大的总体规划项目——纬壹科技城之中,这里将建成一个区域中心,为种类多样的城市及文化活动提供场所,并推动创新和创造力。在符合纬壹科技城大胆前景的基础上,最重要的是在建筑设计上响应客户的设计需求,在地标性建筑的外形内整合功能和技术方面的要求。

此外,总体规划在步行的连通性、建筑外围护结构、高度限制、基地地貌保持、关键的基地特色,以及保留/移植重要的成熟树木等方面制定了详细的规划约束条件。

•自然地势的保留——城市规划指导方针要求保留原始地形的水平高度,并突出某些重要的基地特色。建筑物呼应了水平面高度参差不齐的情况(从+118.50FFL到+111.00FFL),将一层分为两个高度,分别为Level 1(从南部、东南部和西部进入)和Level 2(从北部和东北部进入)。

•开放的广场上综合了高度从+111.0FFL到+115.0FFL的各种入口与下车地点,欢迎来自所有主要交通节点的游客。

•山顶的高度从+111.00FFL到+118.50FFL,其特色通过一连串的阶梯式露台得到了重现,星宇表演艺术中心的VIP下车处也位于这里。

•步行的连通性——一块自然通风的多孔地面板及其核心位置的35米高大型广场向来自地铁系统、纬壹公园及其他未来发展项目的主要人流敞开了怀抱。

•市民空间一体化——考虑周到的设计师将非正式的市民空间与建筑地下一层、二层和三层结合起来,创建了几个景观美化的公共区域,在这里可以举行表演、展览、会议及其他公民活动。

设计要求对市民活动区域和文化区域的总建筑面积(GFA)有一定的限制,因而需要对机电系统进行优化布置,尽量将其堆叠摆放,空出更多空间用于更加重要的演出、休息及循环通道空间。

The Star Vista购物中心

零售空间的设计响应了富有挑战性的现场地形,因为该地区向内盘旋,经过主要入口处,最终到达一个开放的圆形剧场。该综合体既能在建筑内部举办丰富多彩的活动,同时也能保持一定的功能性。

立面采用小块玻璃的设计,不但分解了大块体量,还创造了一种正负空间的动态组合以及一种平衡感。南立面完全开放,其设施从外面清晰可见。该建筑成了一个向公众开放、期待他们发现的有机体。人们可以经由一系列复杂的坡道、自动扶梯、阶地和公共花园在综合体内爬下爬上、纵横穿行。所有的循环通道、设备运转及内部形式都是温和而蜿蜒的,就好像其内部是由公民活动发展而来的。

在面向公众开放的零售空间与私营的封闭剧院之间实现了柔和的垂直过渡。这一过渡从视觉上和空间上均与33米高的宏伟大堂联系起来,连接着地下的零售区域和剧院主要大堂的顶部玻璃楼层,并展现出了漂浮在上方的体量。

星宇表演艺术中心

星宇表演艺术中心的市民与公众活动空间是综合体的重中之重,从外观看起来极富表现力。其南立面与The Star Vista购物中心一样对外开放,展示了内部可见部分的设施运营状况。仿佛漂浮的剧院体量在小块玻璃的设计中被分解了,并采用了定制的带状声学底层来包裹剧院,这样有助于分解、割裂上部的体量,在玩味对正负空间的解读的同时,与下方的虚实空间保持平衡。

剧院有超过5000个座位以及两个包厢,是迄今为止新加坡最大的同类型场地,能够上演音乐剧、音乐会及其他大型演出。空心墙系统能挡住来自休息厅和外部环境的噪音与振动。剧院的整体钢结构都以传统的“盒中盒”的设计方法实现。

可持续性

星综合体首先是一种社会建筑物。它的设计目的是通过公开的前院和零售区域为附近居民提供一个活跃的、受人欢迎的社会界面。

一系列具有改善气候效果的户外空间强调自然的空气流动,它们的创建是为了保护游客免遭新加坡热带大雨的洗礼和烈日的烘烤,同时为户外的顾客提供生理降温。

为了避免限制公共空间,也为了不像新加坡许多其他公共场所那样使用空调,建筑的外形经过设计,可收集盛行的从南北两个方向刮来的微风,并使其加速通过室外空间,为顾客营造舒适的户外座位区,让人们能在健康的户外环境中交往。

在建筑上安装了雨篷,可避免人们直接受到暴晒或淋到雨水,并进一步收集微风,控制内部和外部环境之间的视觉对比,提高居住者的舒适度。

本建筑的愿望是成为可持续和被动式节能设计的典范。它以被动式设计的使用为首要原则,成为环境的补充,并与之密切结合。

计算流体动力学是用来优化自然和生理通风效果的,共同为公共空间和循环通道创造了舒适的热度条件,否则这些地方就需要使用空调了。

另外还使用了混合通风策略,最大化实现各区域的舒适条件,这种条件只依靠自然通风是无法达成的。机械辅助蒸发冷却系统采用高容量、低转速的风扇,将它安装在地下市民广场中,可提供户外热舒适度所必需的空气流动,同时避免了机械制冷。

该发展项目的定向利用建筑物理技术实现了最优化。设计师对白天的太阳能得热、眩光和热舒适度都进行了分析。尽量减少东方和西方的曝光率,使太阳能得热最小化。立面的设计、性能和窗墙比都得到了优化处理,以在使用区域最大化利用日光,并进一步控制太阳能得热。

除了上述作为第一设计原则的整体被动式设计,该发展项目也运用了多种策略来降低整体能耗:

•具有变频调速和睡眠模式的节能电梯和自动扶梯的特点是能减少能源消耗。

•在楼梯和卫生间等公共空间安装运动传感器照明控制装置,可减少照明能耗。

•在礼堂的地板内安装置换通风系统,可减少制冷需求和能源消耗,为温度较高的已使用楼层带来清凉的空气。

•装有一氧化碳传感器的无导管风扇用于地下室停车场,可最小化系统热阻,并减少能源消耗。

•零售空间的开放式设计在空气调节方面具有巨大的节能效果。

目前,本项目在空调系统、空调热泵和冷却塔上分别节约了20%、39.1%和29%的能耗。当下的总体节能水平是,估计比未按照可持续方针设计的项目节省15% 的能耗,据估计约为499千瓦时/平方米/年。这些数据符合BCA绿色标志黄金级认证的要求。

项目的设计也侧重于减少饮用水的消耗和水污染。对雨水和空调冷凝水进行收集,并用作灌溉种植区域的替代水源。这种替代水源也用于冷却塔,由城市的新生水(经过处理的未使用的水)来补充,无需使用饮用水。

此外,遍布整个基地的入渗沟有助于减少雨水径流,最大化减小对当地基础设施造成的压力,并减少污染。除了这些措施之外,所有主要用水计量分表都与建筑管理系统相连,以监控用水量,有助于在未来建立节水的指导方针。

除了尽最大可能增加人体舒适性、减少资源消耗之外,运输、废物处理和空气质量等问题在设计之时也得到了精心的考虑。下面的列表列出了在基地得以实施的额外举措。

•在施工期间移走现场的原始树木,竣工后重新栽回。

•回收园艺垃圾用于堆肥。

•为操作性废物转移提供了垃圾箱。

•建筑的位置靠近Buona Vista地铁站和公共汽车站,促进了公共交通的使用。

•提供自行车停车场及相关设施。

•在停车场设有混合动力车和电动汽车充电站。

•在停车场安装导引系统,方便分区,并在必要时暂时关闭没人使用的地方。

•安装了制冷剂泄漏检测系统,以免制冷剂泄漏。

•为保护室内空气质量,使用了低挥发性有机物涂料和低甲醛黏合剂。

•为尽量减小对整体环境的影响,在施工中采用了环境规划方案。

•在租赁协议中限制租户的能耗水平。该发展项目在社会、经济、环境和生态方面均高水平融入了这个密集的城市环境中,并在热带地区设立了全新的先进公共空间的设计标准。

土木与结构工程师:Parsons Brinckerhoff; Thornton Tomasetti (Before DD Stage) Alt Limited Mott Macdonald Andrew Bromberg of Aedas Artec Consultants Inc Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd

环境工程师:Arup Singapore Pte Ltd

防火工程师:Arup Singapore Pte Ltd

立面:Alt Limited

机电:Mott Macdonald

室内设计:Andrew Bromberg of Aedas

剧场与声效顾问:Artec Consultants Inc

质量安全:Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd

照明:Lighting Planners Associates(S) Pte Ltd

景观:ICN Design International Pte Ltd

功能:Mixed-use

用地面积:19,200 sqm

总面积:Retail 24,000 sqm / Civic 8,000 sqm

项目高度:75 metres


Architects: Andrew Bromberg of Aedas

Location: 1 Vista Exchange Green, Singapore

Client: Rock Productions Pte Ltd and CapitaMalls Asia Limited

Area: 62,000 sqm

Year: 2012

Photographs: Courtesy of Aedas

From the architect. The project aims to become a vibrant civic node with a 5,000-seat cultural theater and a food-and-beverage oriented retail sector, working together to enhance each other’s viability.

The site is located within the larger one-north master plan at Buona Vista, Singapore, which was established to create a regional centre for a wide variety of civic and cultural activities and promote innovation and creativity. In keeping with one-north’s bold vision it was paramount that the architectural response to the client’s brief married the functional and technical requirements of an iconic architectural form.

In addition, the master plan sets out detailed planning constraints in terms of pedestrian connectivity, building envelope, height control, retaining of site topography and key site features, as well as retaining/transplanting of mature trees of significance.

• Retention of the Natural Site Topography – The Urban Planning Guidelines required that the original topographical levels were to be retained and certain significant site features were to be emphasised. The building responds to the variance in levels (from +118.50 FFL to +111.00 FFL) by splitting the ground floor into Level 1 (accessing from the south, southeast and west) and Level 2 (accessing from the north and northeast).

• The varying access and drop-off points that range from +111.0 FFL to +115.0 FFL are integrated into the open plaza, welcoming visitors from all major connection points.

• The hilltop feature that rises from a ground level of +111.00 FFL to +118.50 FFL is re-created by a series of stepped terraces, housing also the VIP drop-off point at The Star Performing Arts Centre.

• Pedestrian Connectivity – A naturally ventilated porous ground plate with a 35m high grand plaza at its core opens up to the main pedestrian flows from the MRT, one-north Park and other future developments.

• Integration of Civic Spaces – Informal civic spaces are thoughtfully integrated into the lower floors of the building at Basement 1, Level 2 and Level 3, creating several landscaped communal zones where performances, exhibitions, gatherings and other civic activities can be hold.

Constraints on gross floor area (GFA) available for the Civic and Cultural Zone also required MEP arrangements to be optimised and stacked to free up GFA for the more critical performances, lobby and circulation spaces within.

Sustainability

The Star is first and foremost a social building. Its design aims to provide an active and welcoming social interface for the local neighborhood through the publicly accessible forecourt and retail areas.

A series of climate ameliorated outdoor spaces that accentuate natural air movement has been created to protect visitors against Singapore’s tropical rain and sun while at the same time providing outdoor patrons physiological cooling.

To avoid confining and air conditioning public spaces as in many other parts of Singapore, the form of the building is shaped to collect prevailing northerly and southerly breezes and accelerate through the outdoor spaces, creating comfortable outdoor seating areas for patrons to socialize in a healthy outdoor environment.

Canopies are installed to provide shelter from direct sun and rain, further collect breezes and control the visual contrast between inside and outside environments to enhance occupants’ sensory comfort.

The aspiration for this building is to become an exemplar of both sustainable and passive design. With the use of the first principles in passive design, it complements and integrates with its surroundings.

Computational Fluid Dynamics is used to optimize natural and physiological ventilation effects and create comfortable thermal conditions in the common and circulation areas that would otherwise have to be air conditioned.

A hybrid ventilation strategy is also implemented to maximise comfort in areas where comfortable conditions cannot be achieved by natural ventilation alone. A mechanically assisted evaporative cooling system which employs high volume, low speed fans is deployed in the basement civic plaza, providing air movement that is required for outdoor thermal comfort while avoiding mechanical refrigeration.

The orientation of the development was optimised by using building physics techniques. Daylight, solar heat gain, glare, and thermal comfort were all analysed. East and west exposure was reduced to minimise the overall solar heat gain. The design, performance and window to wall ratio of the facade were optimized to maximize daylight in occupied areas and also further control solar heat gain.

In addition to the holistic passive design by the first principles described above, the development also implements a number of strategies to reduce overall energy consumption:

• Energy efficient lifts and escalators with VVVF and sleep mode features reduce energy consumption.

• Motion sensor lighting controls in common areas such as staircases and toilets reduce lighting consumption.

• An underfloor displacement ventilation system in the auditorium reduces cooling requirements and energy consumption by delivering cool air at a slightly higher temperature at the occupied levels.

• Ductless fans with CO sensors are used in the basement car parks, minimising system resistance and reducing energy consumption.

• The open space retail design brings a huge energy savings in air conditioning.

The current savings in air conditioning systems, air conditioning pumps and cooling tower for the development are 20%, 39.1% and 29% respectively. The overall energy saving is currently estimated at 15% compared to a non-sustainably designed development, and it is estimated to operate at about 499kWh/m2/ annum. These figures meet the requirements of the BCA Green Mark Gold rating.

The design of the development also focuses on reducing potable water consumption and water pollution. Rain water and air conditioning condensate water is collected and used as alternative water source to irrigate site planting. This alternative water source is also used for the cooling tower, which is supplemented by the city’s NEWater (treated unused water) without the need for potable water.

Besides, infiltration trenches throughout the site help reduce stormwater runoff, minimising stress on local infrastructure and reducing pollution. In addition to these initiatives, sub-meters for all major water uses are linked to the building management system to monitor water consumption and help set water saving guidelines in the future.

In addition to maximizing human comfort and minimizing operational resource consumption, issues such as transportation, waste management and air quality were also considered when designing the development. The following list outlines the additional initiatives that are implemented within the site.

• Original trees on site were removed during construction and restored post construction.

• Recycled horticultural waste is used for compost.

• Recycling bins are provided for operational waste diversion.

• The building is located in close proximity to the Buona Vista MRT station and public bus stations, promoting the use of    public transport.

• Bicycle parking lots and associated facilities are provided.

• Recharging stations for hybrid and electric vehicles are available in car parks.

• A car park guidance system is installed to facilitate zoning and temporary closure of unoccupied areas when       necessary.

• A refrigerant leak detection system is installed to avoid leaking of refrigerants.

• Low VOC paints and low formaldehyde adhesives were used to protect internal air quality.

• Environmental programmes were adopted during construction to minimise the overall environmental impact.

• Tenancy agreements limit tenants’ power consumption. This development achieves a high level of social, economic, environmental, and ecological integration into this dense urban environment and sets new standards for the design of progressive public spaces in the tropics.

Civil & Structural Engineer: Parsons Brinckerhoff; Thornton Tomasetti (Before DD Stage) Alt Limited Mott Macdonald Andrew Bromberg of Aedas Artec Consultants Inc Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd

Environmental Engineer: Arup Singapore Pte Ltd

Fire Engineer: Arup Singapore Pte Ltd

Facade: Alt Limited

Mep: Mott Macdonald

Interior Design: Andrew Bromberg of Aedas

Theater And Acoustic Consultant : Artec Consultants Inc

Qs : Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd

Lighting: Lighting Planners Associates(S) Pte Ltd

Landscape: ICN Design International Pte Ltd

Programme: Mixed-use

Site Area: 19,200 sqm

Gross Area: Retail 24,000 sqm / Civic 8,000 sqm

Project Height: 75 metres