美国,亚利桑那州,西塔里埃森 / 弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特

在亚利桑那州斯科茨代尔市外围的索诺兰沙漠中有这样一个建筑群,它是弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特的生平和作品真实的纪念和展示。威斯康辛州斯普林格林镇的塔里埃森是赖特夫妇的夏季住宅,1937年建造、1959年竣工的西塔里埃森是他们的冬季住宅。此外,赖特的工作室和他学生的学校也设在西塔里埃森。

项目的最初概念于1927年成型,目的是为了避开美国中西部的寒冬。亚利桑那州干燥的沙漠气候激发了赖特和他学生的灵感。赖特发现科茨代尔市的索诺兰沙漠所具有的气候特征非常适合居住和处理事务,更重要的是它需要展示自我:

“亚利桑那需要属于自己的建筑……亚利桑那有着长而低的流线和向上倾斜的平面。线条和色彩经过抽象处理的表面图案可以在响尾蛇、吉拉毒蜥、变色龙、树形仙人掌、仙人掌或石松的图案中找到原型,反之亦然,这些足以激发设计的灵感。”

在威斯康星正值隆冬之时,赖特夫妇就将他的学生带到亚利桑那州。如此来回四年后,1937年,他们决定在麦克道尔山脉南段广袤的景观中定居下来,在这里可以俯瞰科茨代尔天堂谷的景观。当时,赖特以每英亩3.5美元的价格购置了土地,将其作为塔里埃森设计团体和弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特建筑学校主校园的场地。

西塔里埃森不仅仅是赖特的多才多艺和其在美国影响力之大的象征,它还代表了他职业生涯的一个时刻,环境和(美国西南部的)设计语汇被融合到赖特具有表现力的草原式住宅设计中。同他的其他项目一样,赖特对在当地可获得的材料十分重视,并把这些材料按照其他草原式住宅中的方法进行应用。西塔里埃森的楼层平面很低,这样住宅和工作室就尽可能靠近地面,以确保自然通风,并遮挡沙漠中强烈的日照。

在西塔里埃森建造期间,住宅和工作室只是簇拥在赖特及其学生使用的中央露台周围的“睡眠盒子”。在学生把住宅和工作室的主体建设完成后,赖特夫妇的住宅、学生的住宅和集会场所这些不同的空间的组织方式都确保了室内的隐私,而且在形式构成上与景观相协调。西塔里埃森不是常规的建筑,因为它是通过露台、花园和水池连接起来的一系列空间。

一如既往,赖特对这个项目的设计和细节的每个方面都十分注重。除了密切关注干旱沙漠的气候,赖特使用当地和建筑场地提供的材料来建造住宅和地基。该住宅使用的最重要的材料就是在建筑场地发现的沙漠石头,这也是项目的细节所在。在使用了红木框架后,石材平坦的一面可以朝向外侧,石材中间的缝隙由混凝土混合物填充,从而构成了住宅的大型石墙和结构构件。赖特还将天然红木作为屋顶结构和住宅与工作室立面的部分构件。红木丰富的红色调、混凝土和石材的淡茶色使住宅和景观以一种自然的方式融合在一起。

“我们的新沙漠校园属于亚利桑那沙漠,因为从最开始,沙漠就存在于此。”——赖特

对于赖特来说,西塔里埃森是一个在建项目。每年冬天回到这里的时候,他都会重新思考之前的设计,然后跟学生们一起重建住宅的某些部分。之后,赖特新建了一座大型的餐厅、一个音乐亭和一座卡巴莱歌舞剧院。这座剧院被认为是赖特最成熟的作品之一。

这座卡巴莱歌舞剧院既可以作为接待客人的非正式空间,也可以作为款待贵客的正式餐厅。

西塔里埃森不仅是赖特师徒的家,也是赖特某些著名项目的起源,其中就包括纽约古根海姆博物馆和位于坦佩的亚利桑那州立大学校园中的Grady Grammage礼堂。

1982年,西塔里埃森被指定为美国国家地标。2008年,它被授予“世界遗产”的称号。时至今日,西塔里埃森仍是塔里埃森设计团体的总部,同时也是弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特建筑学校的主校园。在赖特师徒的住宅和项目设计中,人们可以体会到赖特建筑理念的存在和延续。

建筑师: Frank Lloyd Wright

地点:亚利桑那州斯科茨代尔市

项目建造时间:1937 – 1959

摄影师: Flickr User: lumierefl, ©Xavier de Jauréguiberry, Flickr User: godutchbaby

参考:GreatBuildings


Situated in the Sonoran desert outside of Scottsdale, Arizona stands a living memorial and testament to the life and work of Frank Lloyd Wright.  Completed between 1937 - 1959, Taliesin West was the winter home to Wright and his wife’s summer home, Taliesin, in Spring Green, Wisconsin in addition to being Wright’s workshop and school for his apprentices.

First conceptualized in 1927 to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest, Arizona’s arid desert climate proved to a place that could inspire Wright and his apprentices.  Wright found that the atmosphere of Scottsdale’s Sonoran desert was a perfect place for a residence, a place of business, and most importantly a place to learn stating:

“Arizona needs its own architecture… Arizona’s long, low, sweeping lines, uptilting planes. Surface patterned after such abstraction in line and color as find “realism” in the patterns of the rattlesnake, the Gila monster, the chameleon, and the saguaro, cholla or staghorn – or is it the other way around—are inspiration enough.”

After four years of bringing his apprentices to Arizona during the harsh Wisconsin winters, Wright and his wife finally made the trek to Arizona to take up residence in the expansive landscape on the southern end of McDowell Range that overlooked Scottsdale’s Paradise Valley in 1937.  At the time, Wright paid $3.50 an acre for what would become the Taliesin Fellowship and the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture main campus.

Taliesin West is not only a symbol of Wright’s versatility and influential expansion throughout the United States, but it marks a moment in his career where context and [southwestern] vernacular begin to integrate into Wright’s formulated Prairie Style. Similar to his other projects, Wright takes special interest in locally available materials and applies them in similar fashion to his other Prairie Style projects, employing low level, horizontal planes that keep the house and studio low to the ground to insure effective natural ventilation and protection and shade from the intense desert sun.

During the construction of Taliesin West, the house and studio were merely a series of “sleeping boxes” that were clustered around a central terrace for Wright and his apprentices.  When the main portion of the house and studio were completed by the apprentices, the different spaces of the house for Wright and his wife, the apprentices, and the gathering spaces were all organized to maintain a certain sense of privacy within, but a formal compositional balance with the landscape.  Taliesin West is less of a singular building as it is a series of spaces that are connected through terraces, gardens, and pools.

Similar to all of Wrights projects, every aspect of design and detail of the project was given particular attention by Wright. Beside the close attention to the arid desert climate, Wright implemented local and site provided materials for the construction of the house and foundation.  One of the most significant uses of material and details of the house is Wright’s employment of the desert stone found on the site.  Through the use of redwood formwork, the flat faces of the stones were faced outwards and the space in between the stones were combined with  a concrete mix that make up the larger stone walls and structural elements of the house. Wright also used a natural redwood timber for the roofing structure and parts of the house and studio’s façade.  The rich red hue from the redwood timber along with the earthy, sandy hues from the concrete and the stone creates a close natural relationship between the house and landscape.

“Our new desert camp belongs to the Arizona desert as though it had stood there during creation.” – Wright

For Wright, Taliesin West was an ongoing project each winter that he would return to the house he would rethink previous designs and begin to rebuild parts of the house with his apprentices.  Wright later added a larger dining room, a music pavilion, and a cabaret theater, which has been recognized as one of Wright’s most accomplished spaces.

The cabaret theater functions as both a formal and informal space; transforming for the entertainment of guests, while also serving as a formal dining space for special guests.

Taliesin West was not only home to Wright and his apprentices, but it was the origin of some of Wright’s most famous projects including the Guggenheim Museum in New York City and the Grady Grammage Auditorium on Arizona State University’s campus in Tempe.

In 1982, Taliesin West was designated as a National Landmark and in 2008 it was nominated to become granted World Heritage status. Today, Taliesin West continues to be the home to the Taliesin Fellowship as well as the main campus to the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture where one can experience the presence and continuation of Wright’s architectural discourse in the house and the work of the apprentices.

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright

Location: Scottsdale, Arizona

Project Year: 1937 - 1959

Photographs: Flickr User: lumierefl, ©Xavier de Jauréguiberry, Flickr User: godutchbaby

References: GreatBuildings