澳大利亚,植物银行 / BVN Donovan Hill

建筑师:BVN Donovan Hill

地点:澳大利亚 新南威尔士 安南山

主管建筑师:Alex Chaston

项目总监:Peter Titmuss

项目负责人:James Grose

竣工时间:2013

摄影师: John Gollings

项目团队:Daniel Londono, Anton Kouzmin, Shane Leyden, Louise Lovmand, Kim Humphries

管理承包商:Hansen Yuncken

项目经理:Thinc Projects

Services, Structural, And Traffic, Civil And Acoustics Consultant: AECOM

景观建筑师:360 Degrees

可及性顾问: Morris Goding Access Consulting

环境顾问:Eco Logical Australia

建筑资质顾问和认证机构:Blackett Maguire + Goldsmith

规划顾问:Urbis

规范编制:Kim Humphries

解释设计:X Squared

施工技术:MBMpl

文字来自建筑师。澳大利亚安南山植物银行是皇家植物园和多曼基金会的科学和研究机构。

建筑的规划是根据设计纲要和独特的自然环境来制定的。设计纲要要求建筑具有双重功能。首先,该建筑要作为澳大利亚本土种子的研究和储藏地;其次,这是一处通过公共展示和展览活动来向公众展示研究的机构。

自然环境对建筑的外形有一定的影响。它将北部濒临灭绝的坎伯兰郡平原森林包围起来,作为森林的自然特色,与建筑“围合”庭院中的人造景观之间的过渡十分自然。建筑准确地反映出各种景观的融合。过渡景观与建筑间的对话是对澳大利亚的建筑用地和耕地的一种暗喻。

景观在空间体验中占据着重要的地位。建筑设计将人与景观的关系放在首位,因此,建筑的入口也就与景观交融在一起。穿过建筑东侧翼楼的下方(通常经由地下),你会发现建筑向北部弯曲,并融入朝向原有森林的土地。走到前门,游客就进入了说明展览区,这一区域将室外庭院与室内研究区域连接起来。

从通向东侧翼楼下的植物银行领域的入口处开始,人造景观与自然景观就融合在一起——地表上的通道映射在入口的反射拱腹上,苔藓花园使用了从悉尼市拆毁的建筑中回收的剩余砂石块,以划分外来苔藓的种植区域——象征着将原来用于城市建设的砂石块恢复到其原有的自然状态,虽然是通过人为的方法。

建成景观的表述暗指对社会化文化的治理。随着庭院与北侧的自然森林在视觉上的融合,这种模式逐渐消失了。

建筑的表达方式就源自建成形式与土地的内在关系——混凝土底座代表抽象的土地;抛光的不锈钢面板淡化并模糊了建成环境和自然环境的关系;可操控的百叶由不锈钢防火网密封,使建筑可以采用混合方式进行通风,建筑平面和功能设置都与其所处的自然环境相融合。

在建筑的室内,游客的行走通道设置在由透明玻璃围合的实验室旁边,实验室外部的展示材料使人们关注其内部进行的各种活动。游客能够到达的最高处是建筑平面的顶点,那里有一间多功能室,它可用于举办研讨会和各种活动。

研究人员和工作人员的工作区位于一处多功能空间中。室内饰面的选择旨在突出建筑的不同特点——实验室和展示区突出视觉清晰度,工作场所用木材来装饰,以营造温馨舒适的工作环境。

植物银行与一条贯穿森林的名为“被偷走的一代”的步行道相连,游客可以方便地进入花园的大环境中。

可持续性

植物银行的建筑和其所在的自然环境都采用可持续性的设计。北侧呈弧形的建筑平面容纳的游客数量最多,因此,朝南的立面墙体进深较大,以起到遮阳的作用。墙体的进深也使得公共区和工作区的玻璃百叶在任何天气条件下都可以自如地应用。在工作场所中,跨越东西的开放平面确保了在一年中的大部分时间内可以进行自然通风。混合的模式减少了对机械设备的依赖,显著减少了能源的消耗。

安装在东侧翼楼地下的“热迷宫”降低了暖通空调系统的荷载,增加了夏季的自然通风。热空气在夜晚进行预冷后循环进入室内,热空气被排出室外。系统通过将白天的热量和夜晚的凉爽保存在周围的混凝土、泥土和建造的“迷宫”中的岩石床中,来缓解周围极冷、极热的环境压力。预计该系统在为建筑供暖和制冷时,可以使温度上升或下降7.5摄氏度。

所有朝阳的表面都采用了被动遮阳措施,公共区域的混凝土楼板可以充分利用冬季的阳光。 可燃性较低的材料确保建筑免受深林大火的侵害。此外,建筑还采用了当地的可再生木材。整个建筑都采用了水收集系统。屋顶上安装了煤气升压太阳能热水器。


Architects: BVN Donovan Hill

Location: Mount Annan, NSW, Australia

Architect In Charge: Alex Chaston

Project Director: Peter Titmuss

Project Principal: James Grose

Year: 2013

Photographs: John Gollings

Project Team: Daniel Londono, Anton Kouzmin, Shane Leyden, Louise Lovmand, Kim Humphries

Managing Contractor: Hansen Yuncken

Project Manager: Thinc Projects

Services, Structural, And Traffic, Civil And Acoustics Consultant: AECOM

Landscape Architect: 360 Degrees

Accessibility Consultant: Morris Goding Access Consulting

Environmental Consultant: Eco Logical Australia

Building Compliance Consultant And Certifier: Blackett Maguire + Goldsmith

Planning Consultant: Urbis

Specification Writer: Kim Humphries

Interpretative Design: X Squared

Quantity Surveyor: MBMpl

From the architect. The Australian PlantBank at Mount Annan, is a science and research facility of the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust.

The plan has been derived in response to the brief and to the strong natural context. The brief calls for a building of dual function - firstly a place in which research into Australian indigenous seeds will be conducted and a repository of seeds is housed and secondly a facility revealing research through public interpretation and exhibition activities.

The natural setting has influenced the form of the building it embraces the remnant endangered Cumberland Plain forest to the north; as the natural character of the forest transitions to the cultivated landscape of the “embraced” courtyard the building literally reflects the merging landscapes. The dialogue between the transitional landscape and the building is a metaphor for the mediated and cultivated land of Australia.

The landscape is pre-eminent in the experience of the “place" and with the primacy of this relationship between participant and landscape in mind, the building’s entry becomes the engagement with the landscape. Going under the east wing of the building - nominally passing under the ground - the building curves to the north and merges with the land toward the extant forest. Walking to the front door the visitor engages the interpretive display that connects the external courtyard with the internal research.

The entry into the “domain" of PlantBank under the east wing commences the merging of the built and natural forms - the reflective soffit of the entry reflects the terrestrial path, the lichen garden uses remnant sandstone blocks rescued from demolished Sydney buildings to host exotic lichen colonies - a symbolic returning of the once shaped urban sandstone back into its natural (albeit contrived) composure.

The narrative of the built landscape alludes to a “harnessing” socialised culture - the pattern diminishes as the courtyard merges visually into the natural forest to the north.

The building’s expression is derived from this visceral relationship between built form and the land - the concrete base nominally the abstracted earth; the polished stainless steel panels diluting and making ambiguous the relationship between the built and natural settings; the operable louvres enabling mixed mode ventilation sealed by stainless steel bushfire mesh; and the form of the building in both plan and expression being deferential to its natural setting.

Inside the building, the visitor path runs beside the clear glazed laboratories with the external interpretive material focussed on the activities within the labs. The culmination of the visit is the apex of the plan where a multi-purpose room enables seminars and events.

The workplace of the researchers and staff is in a mixed mode environment. Interior finishes have been chosen to articulate the different characters of the building - the laboratories and interpretive areas having visual clarity with the workplaces designed with timber and a softer working environment.

Linked to the Stolen Generations Walk through the forest, PlantBank visitors can be immersed into the greater environment of the Garden.

Sustainability

Sustainability at PlantBank continues the engagement of the building and domain with its natural setting. The plan arcs to the north placing the maximum amount of visitor facade to the sun which is then moderated by a deep wall enabling sunshading. The depth of the wall also facilitates all weather operability of the glass louvres in the public areas and the workplace. In the workplace, with an open plan spanning from east to west, cross ventilation is assured for a considerable part of the year. The mixed mode facilitates a lesser reliance on mechanical plant resulting in significantly diminished energy consumption.

A thermal labyrinth has been installed under the east wing which reduces the HVAC load and extends natural ventilation, particularly during summer when fresh air pre-cooled overnight circulates and forces out warm air. The system is designed to reduce the peaks and troughs of extreme ambient weather by capturing either the heat of the day or the cool of the night retaining it in the surrounding concrete, earth and rock beds of the constructed labyrinth. The prediction for the assisted warming or cooling of the building is up to 7.5 degrees centigrade.

Passive shading is provided to all sun facing surfaces and the concrete floor of the public areas ensures the effect of winter sun is harnessed. Materials of low combustibility have been used to enable bushfire protection and locally sourced renewable resource timber has been used. Water harvesting is employed throughout and gas boosted solar hot water is located on the roof.