哥伦比亚,波哥大,圣马里亚德洛斯卡瓦列罗斯教堂 / MGP Arquitectura y Urbanismo

建筑师:MGP Arquitectura y Urbanismo

地点:哥伦比亚 波哥大

主管建筑师:Felipe González-Pacheco Mejía, Álvaro Bohórquez Rivero

设计团队:María Andrea Díaz, Laura Caicedo, Uriel Rivera, María Francisca Echeverri, Camilo Correa, Santiago Suarez.

面积:1695.0 sqm

竣工时间:2013

摄影师:Andrés Valbuena

结构:Nicolás Parra (CNI Ingenieros).

开发商:Fundación Gimnasio Campestre, Rector Juan Antonio Casas Pardo.

承包商:EXACTA PROYECTO TOTAL S.A, Arq. Luis Guillermo Vallejo.

中介公司:CONSTRUCCIONES OBYCON S.A.S, Ing. Federico Cerón.

文字来自建筑师。天主教堂从本质上来说是神与人类交流的地方。Gimnasio Campestre的教堂及其周围的社区就是一座在空间上表达这种交流的建筑,代表神的平台悬挑在代表人类的地下空间上。因此,教堂就成了处在这两者之间的压缩空间。在人进入建筑后,他就领悟了人类的世俗和精神条件,空间不用借助表面的装饰也会变得神圣起来。而后,人与神的接触就产生了教堂,教堂就是信仰活动的物化结果。

地下空间可以举办各种活动,以彰显教堂的世俗特征,并表述天主教的基本理念——“我们是来自另一片土地的种子”。地下空间中的每个功能空间都向外延伸,以感知外界的天气条件,并增强自身的物质性。屋顶“漂浮”在空间上方,使人在精神层面上进行反思,因为屋顶也是学校的创办者,也就是阿方索•莫拉莱斯•卡萨斯的花园和他的长眠之所。因此教堂改变了其所在地的地理位置。

此外,教堂的设计也使用了天主教中的象征元素,以强调它的神圣感。反射水池中的水象征洗礼,水面倒映着教堂和十字架;坟墓中永恒之火的火焰象征着圣灵;圣器收藏室前三棵树上的油料种子象征着奉献;斜坡和屋顶上的蕨类象征着耶路撒冷的棕榈树;教堂屋顶上的十二盏明灯使人想起耶稣之十二信徒。

该建筑的设计用非常简朴的材料满足了其在技术方面的要求。质朴的混凝土墙体虽然数量很少,但是其布置和施工都经过深思熟虑。墙体表面用七条一组的细线装饰(七是神圣的数字),线条随着阳光跳跃,从而营造出教堂的空间感和画面感。教堂建筑和学校建筑的其他部分高度相同,但是因为它位于中庭之上,所以有着强烈的存在感,并与其所在的城市环境和所属的总体规划相符。建筑的设计以低容量的原则为基础,以与周围原有的建筑立面相协调,但是其体量更具有力量感。

由于学校和周围建筑所在的社区的存在,参观教堂也成为人们了解和学习天主教教义的一种途径。对教堂的认知也成为一次发现之旅和朝圣之行。在这一过程中,作为第四维度的时间成为建筑的一部分,使人深入了解它所在的场地的文化。Gimnasio Campestre天主教社区使其下辖的机构有着强烈的归属感,新建的建筑更增强了这份归属感。学校建筑群的设计也是着眼于未来。


Architects: MGP Arquitectura y Urbanismo

Location: Calle 165 N.8A -50 Bogotá, Colombia

Architect In Charge: Felipe González-Pacheco Mejía, Álvaro Bohórquez Rivero

Design Team: María Andrea Díaz, Laura Caicedo, Uriel Rivera, María Francisca Echeverri, Camilo Correa, Santiago Suarez.

Area: 1695.0 sqm

Year: 2013

Photographs: Andrés Valbuena

Structure: Nicolás Parra (CNI Ingenieros).

Developer: Fundación Gimnasio Campestre, Rector Juan Antonio Casas Pardo.

Contractor: EXACTA PROYECTO TOTAL S.A, Arq. Luis Guillermo Vallejo.

Intervening Company: CONSTRUCCIONES OBYCON S.A.S, Ing. Federico Cerón.

From the architect. A Catholic temple is essentially a place to achieve communication between the Divine and the Human. The chapel for the Gimnasio Campestre and its surrounding community, is a building that spatially expresses this contact that results from producing a levitating deck, the divine, on an undermined space, the human, so that the temple is just the compressed space in tension between the two parts. When occupied the user comprehends the earthly and the spiritual condition of humans and the space acquires its sacred character without superficial gadgets. The temple is then generated by the contact between the two parts, and its physical understanding is an act of faith.

The undermined space houses all the activities that help prove the worldly character of the church and expresses the fundamental Catholic idea that "we are seed from another land." Each of the sites of the program extend outward within the excavated area to allow their participation with the weather conditions and strengthen its material nature. The roof levitates over the space and proposes a reflection on the spiritual, as it serves as home to the school founder’s garden and his tomb, the one of Dr. Alfonso Morales Casas. The temple then changes the geographical site in which it is located.

Moreover, the natural symbolic elements in Catholicism are also present to strengthen its sacredness. Water in the water-mirror symbolizes baptism and doubles the temple and the Cross, fire in the eternal flame of the tomb symbolizes the Holy Spirit, oily seeds in the 3 trees in front of the sacristy symbolize devotion and ferns on the slopes and roofs symbolize the Jerusalem’s palms. Twelve brighter lights on the temple’s ceiling remind us of the twelve apostles.

The building is technically resolved using austere architectural resources. With a very few but blunt concrete walls, carefully located and constructed, and finished with a texture done with groups of seven micro-lines (the sacred number) that vibrate with light, spatiality and the temple’s image is defined. With the same height of the rest of the school buildings but with great presence over the Central Patio the building responds to its urban site and to the Master Plan to which it belongs, based on a low volume that adapts to the pre-existing neighbors’ elevations, but with a forceful volume.

For the school’s and neighbors’ community the building becomes part of a pedagogical piece of Catholicism as recognizing it turns into an experience of discovery and pilgrimage in which the fourth dimension, time, becomes part of the project and helps understand deeply the cultural site to which it belongs. The Gimnasio Campestre’s catholic community with a high sense of belonging to its institution is now reinforced by changes in its physical plant and the school’s family is projected to the future.