马里,巴马科,Falatow Jigiyaso孤儿院 / F8 architecture + Gérard Violante

建筑师:F8 architecture, Gérard Violante

地点:马里,巴马科

面积:891.0 sqm

年份:2012

摄影:Vanja Bjelobaba

承包商:EGENEB-TP (General contractor) / SEEBA (water supply, photovoltaic panels)

客户:Association SEMAF Bamako – Association Falatow Jigiyaso (user)

客户的顾问:AMSCID (Association Malienne de Solidarité et de Coopération Internationale pour le Développement)

造价:308 000 000 F CFA (469 000 €)

文字来自建筑师。Falatow Jigiyaso孤儿院的故事始自巴马科。1978年,Fatoumata Goundourou在街上发现了一名弃婴,将他带回家。从那时起,她的家就成了30多个年龄大小不一的孩子的避难所。

2010年,巴黎南部小城弗雷斯纳的一些市民告诉了他们的市长——让-雅克•布莱迪——Fatoumata的故事。之后,他就前往马里与Fatoumata见面,并决定在Dialakoroba(巴马科以南50公里)建造一座正式的孤儿院。

孤儿院为孩子们和工作人员提供了住所、小型医疗中心、行政办公室、厕所和淋浴区、一间厨房和一个食堂。教室和露台位于一楼,供儿童活动之用。这些房间以马里和西非传统建筑设计的方式围绕一个中央庭院排列。

这个项目位于subsahelian区,我们在设计中面临了极端的天气条件。此外,从实际情况、环境和经济原因来看,我们选择不使用空调装置,甚至简单的风扇也不用。因此,孤儿院的整体设计基于保证房子的良好舒适性的三条原则。

第一条原则是减少太阳能得热。为了达成目标,在房顶上加盖了一层屋顶。这些屋顶的屋檐出挑,可保护房间免遭太阳直接辐射。此外,这些加盖的屋顶也保护了位于一楼、用于儿童活动的露台。

第二条原则是提高墙壁的热质量。所有的墙都用“H”字形混凝土砖砌成。然后,在空心砖块中央填充Banco:这是由泥浆和谷物外壳混合而成的。在马里很容易找到Banco,它以其强大的热工性能而闻名。最后,在最为暴露的立面上包裹上石笼包层。

最后一条原则有关于自然通风。从整个孤儿院来看,建筑的布置往往是为了改善空气流通状况。从小范围来看,每一个体量都安装了特有的通风口,以此实现自然通风和被动式制冷效果。

在温暖的4月,经我们测量,室内外温差超过了20°C。这一测量结果证明了在本项目中特别开发的设计方式确有其益处。

由于孤儿院所在的Dialakoroba村许多公共服务设施都没有接通,所以我们别无选择,只能做到自给自足。屋顶铺设了光伏板用来发电。地下水是从70米深的井里打上来的。

本项目的另一个重要之处在于污水管理。因为马里面临着巨大的水资源困境,所以我们认为,对建筑中的污水进行再次利用是非常有必要的。因此,污水是通过一种庞大的处理系统来收集和处理的。该系统的第一个组成部分是一个消化池,能使沉淀悬浮物。第二个组成部分是一个生物过滤器,将厌氧细菌固定在沙床上,以达到净化水的目的。消除污染的水离开这个设备之后流向一个开放的池塘,用来养鱼——每天大约4立方米——然后用于农业(特别是市场园艺),这样就能增加一年中的收入来源。

该系统不仅为孤儿院提供食物,还能教孩子们市场园艺和养鱼方面的技术。最终,孤儿院的功能远不止于孩子们的避难所,而是拓展到了教育和实践的领域。

本项目的特色在于知识和技术的交流。这可以简单地用两个例子来说明。利用“H”字形混凝土砖的主意出自一名马里的工程师,这是处于完全的混凝土砌体设计与完全的泥砖方案之间的重要折中方案。由我们的朋友、法国工程师Gérard Violante设计的大型污水处理方案是首次在马里得到实施,在其他地方应该也能找到其他的应用。

总之,我们团队将永远铭记这次的整个冒险行动,不仅因为这个项目的性质,也要感谢与我们交流、提供有益信息的人。这第一个项目也将因为将我们的团队聚在一起、创建了我们的建筑设计公司而令人难忘。


Architects: F8 architecture, Gérard Violante

Location: Bamako, Mali

Area: 891.0 sqm

Year: 2012

Photographs: Vanja Bjelobaba

Contractors: EGENEB-TP (General contractor) / SEEBA (water supply, photovoltaic panels)

Client: Association SEMAF Bamako – Association Falatow Jigiyaso (user)

Client's Consultant: AMSCID (Association Malienne de Solidarité et de Coopération Internationale pour le Développement)

Cost: 308 000 000 F CFA (469 000 €)

From the architect. The story of Falatow Jigiyaso orphanage begins in Bamako. In 1978, Fatoumata Goundourou found an orphan baby in the street and brought him home. From now on, her house will become a shelter for no less than 30 children of all ages.

In 2010, the mayor of the city of Fresnes (south of Paris) – Jean-Jacques Bridey – was told by some of his citizens of Fatoumata’s story. Then he went to Mali to meet Fatoumata and decided to build a proper orphanage in Dialakoroba (50 km south of Bamako).

The orphanage offers housings for children and staff, a small medical centre, administration offices, toilet and shower blocks, a kitchen and a dining hall. Classrooms and terraces are located on the first floor for children’s activities. The blocks are arranged around a central yard in the fashion of traditional Malian and West-African architecture.

On this project, located in the subsahelian area, we faced extreme weather conditions. Moreover, for practical, environmental and economic reasons, we choose not to use air conditioning units or even simple fans. For those reasons, the whole design of the orphanage is based on three principles that would guarantee a good comfort in the building.

The first principle is the reduction of solar heat gain.To do so, an additional roof is placed above the blocks. Those roofs that go over the blocks’ edges protect the rooms from direct solar gain. Moreover, those extra roofs protect the terraces located on the first floor and used for children activities.

The second principle was to improve the thermal mass of the walls. All the walls are made of “H”-shape concrete blocks. Then, the hollow centres of the blocks are filled with Banco: a recipe of mud and grain husks. Banco is easily found in Mali and is well-known for its strong thermal properties. Finally, gabion cladding is used on the most exposed façades.

The last principle was about natural ventilation. On the scale of the whole orphanage, the layout of the blocks tends to improve air circulation. On a small scale, each block features vent grills in order to allow natural ventilation and passive cooling.

During the warm season in April, we measured an indoor-outdoor temperature difference of more than 20°C. This result tends to prove the benefits of the specific design developed on this project.

As the orphanage is located outside the village of Dialakoroba and far from the services, we had no choice but to make it self-sufficient. Photovoltaic panels are placed on the roof to produce electricity. Groundwater is pumped in a 70m depth well.

Another important aspect of the project is waste water management. As Mali faces great water issues, we believed it was particularly relevant to imagine a second life for the water used in the building. Therefore, waste water are collected and processed through an extensive treatment system. The first component of this system is a digester making possible the settlement of suspended solids. The second component is a biofilter where anaerobic bacteria are fixed on sand beds in order to purify the water. When depolluted water exits this device, it flows to an opened pond used for fish farming. The overflowing water – around 4 m3 a day – is then used for agriculture (especially market gardening) allowing several harvests a year instead of one.

This system not only provides food for the orphanage but also provides education for the children in the fields of market gardening and fish farming. Finally the orphanage outdoes its primary function of giving a shelter to the children and takes a part in their education and fulfillment.

This project was marked with knowledge and know-how exchanges. This can be simply illustrates with two examples. The idea of using “H”-shape concrete blocks that is a very relevant compromise between a complete concrete masonry design and a complete mudbrick solution was given by a Malian engineer. The extensive wastewater treatment process design by our friend Gérard Violante, a French engineer, was implement for the first time in Mali and should find other applications elsewhere.

As a conclusion, this whole adventure will be always remembered by our team not only because of the nature of the project but also thanks to the quality of the exchanges we experience with people. This first project will be also remembered for bringing our team together to create our architecture firm.