法国,巴黎,Silos 13办公大楼 / vib architecture

建筑师: vib architecture

地点:法国巴黎

总建筑师:Bettina Ballus, Franck Vialet

面积:4478.0 sqm

年份:2014

摄影: Stéphane Chalmeau, Daniel Moulinet, Courtesy of vib architecture

执行建筑师:Antoine Bourdeau, Marlène Bourque, Célia Horn

现场建筑师:Célia Horn

可持续认证:Plan Climat Ville de Paris

工程+施工方法+协调:Jacobs France

声效:Peutz & Ass

立面设计顾问:Arcora

承包商:Sogea TPI (Buildings) – Ibau Hamburg (Process)

以下文字来自建筑师。

背景

本项目距离巴黎东环仅有5米,位于Zac Rive Gauche大型开发区的尽头。自2000年以来,Ateliers LION工作室就对这里进行了城市研究,他们的研究与2010年新颁布的城市规范(PLU),均让位于一个新建的Bruneseau Nord社区。这个项目的特点是高层建筑和多种功能混合,建筑设计与基础设施兼有。为了实现这个新的开发项目,巴黎市已要求Ciments Calcia放弃现有的位于塞纳河附近的配送中心,并在Austerlitz站外头的现有铁道附近留了一块新地给他们。Semapa承担起了为Ciments Calcia建设新项目的重任。

先决条件

本项目将一个工业设施转换成一个城市雕塑,被视为Bruneseau Nord新地块改造过程的第一步。

要建成这个项目需要三个条件:

•需要有城市和政治方面的视野,靠一条从巴黎到伊夫里的人行道,将城市扩张至东部地区。现有的中心仅通过一条铁路线与铁路网络相连,这条铁路从社区当中斜插过去。为了促成这个新的大型开发项目,新建筑显然需要挪动位置。

• 尽管与许多现有网络和技术问题或城市规则相关的难处数不胜数,但还是要有开发这个被遗忘的工业区的愿望,并且下定决心在城市的新环境中保留这种工业活动。

•邀请到Vinci TPI等承包商,他们精于土木工程,需要请他们来搭建主要的竖井,这也给了我们一个难得的机会,利用不同寻常的工具和资源,这些通常都是用于大型基础设施的设计中的。

建筑师项目

“本项目是开发巴黎东部新区的第一步。对我们来说最初的问题显然是将本项目嵌入未来的城市项目中,为这个工业厂房引入‘大胆的设计’。首先,项目的设计周期很长,这要归因于其高风险的特质以及特殊的场地,场地挨着巴黎的环路,这是欧洲最繁忙的高速公路,平均每天经过车辆30万辆次。最初的50米高的筒仓项目在建筑审批阶段未能通过,尽管城市规划和新规定允许建设摩天大楼,但是当局还是要求我们重新设计一栋37米高的项目,以配合巴黎平常的最高项目高度。这意味着出现了新的重要限制。为了保持相同的容量,筒仓必须加宽至20米,这就让场地显得更小了。

2011年6月,当时我们只有一个周末的时间来设计一个全新的项目,准备参加最终决选,与会者包括涉及本项目的所有政府官员。这种种限制要求我们拿出一个大胆而明确的项目。

到那时,显然,将要运营该中心的Calcia更乐于使用能提高人们的技能、推动水泥制作销售产业的材料,让人们用这些材料在城市四处建造精彩的建筑物。

我们给出的答案正是如今建筑的样子:第一,主要的竖井必须嵌入一个独一无二的位置,这里能够容纳所有原有的通道和工作网络。然后是质量控制中心,因为它本来必须设在地面上,在这里却安排在环城大道的下方滑过。办公楼刚好符合地产类建筑的高度限制,高高的柱子允许卡车从下方经过。整个项目就能由一栋立式气缸聚集在一起,这里有楼梯和电梯,项目已经变得相当简单:整个项目,包括办公室和质量控制中心,嵌入了5个不同的独立筒仓,它们均由混凝土建成,所有的均由混凝土建造,从表面也是混凝土的地面拔地而起。”

建筑的规模

人们现在立刻就能被项目的宏伟气势所打动。尽管它使用的是最常见的技术语言及配件,这里被转化为一个独特的工作场所,致力于混凝土材料的使用:筒仓、楼梯、办公室、测试中心,以及地面,它们都是用混凝土制成的。所使用的材料显示出了巨大的潜力。没有一个突出的元素。这个项目是一个整体,它是鲜活的,是一种抽象概念,自地面冒出,从地面上升,彼此互相吸引,吸引到了一个独特的地方。

施工中的主要技术

本项目依赖于混凝土的各种不同的使用。主要的筒仓和垂直塔楼是利用滑模浇筑而成的,这是最稳健的建造方式。平台的建造日以继夜赶工,在2月份花了3周时间建成,每小时搭建2.5厘米,而在2013年6月,花了2周时间给每个37米高的筒仓顶部加盖,平均总会有15名工人在同时施工。

卧式筒仓的外壳是预制的,然后用卡车运到现场,吊起,转动,安装,每个筒仓的安装都不超过24小时。

多边形窗户

对于办公室和质量控制中心来说,在“筒仓”的哪一侧入射的光线都不足以照亮所有的工作场所。外壳上的洞口必须足够大,才能让光线照进来,但又不能太大,因为还得保证体量和表面的完整性。为这些洞口而选用的多边形被设想为两种不同的抽象的形状:石头的形状,用这些来制作混凝土,或是矿物碎片或岩块,也可以用来做混凝土。

固定多边形铝窗的制作程序很复杂。第一个问题就是这种多边形的几何形状如何与圆柱状外壳结合——用办公3D软件排序。第二个问题更复杂,与当前的规定有关,防水和排水需要非常复杂的设计程序。我们邀请到了经常合作的立面工程公司Arcora,请他们来帮助我们设计符合现行标准的防水和排水工程。

直升电梯/楼梯间是建筑最明显的部位,它们比环路路面高出仅仅5米,就充当了信号塔。洞口的设计很相似,但是这些洞口都安装了一个简单的不锈钢网。我们想要让洞口随着高度的增加而扩大,并且越来越轻盈,与其背后的主要筒仓形成对比。

栅栏

需要特别注意的是主要的栅栏。大家一致认为办公中心应该从街道上能看到。我们的系统便允许人们隐约看到工业生产活动,重型卡车却无法开到新场地上。我们的设计提案既能让人们看到这个地方,又看不到,这要取决于视角。

可持续的项目

Ciments Calcia 法国配送中心的总经理Jerome Lestringant 说道:“很显然,我们工厂如果还想继续在Bruneseau开下去的话,就必须为新的城市项目让路,将现有的工厂搬走。我们在Tolbiac的现有客户位置相当集中:大约80%的客户都在方圆30公里之内。我们显然想待在他们附近。”

尽量挨近城市

“在Tolbiac现有工厂的关键质量依赖于其位于城市中央的战略地位。而全部水泥都是靠火车从上游运来的,然后由我们的客户用卡车运往下游,这通常与主要的城市交通方向相反。若将工厂从这个位置搬走,就会增加火车运输的距离,方向与已经过饱和的公共交通方向一致。”

Lestringant 先生继续说:“我们的目标是建立一个可持续发展的项目。我们想保留原有的铁路运输方式,并通过附近的塞纳河来运输我们的水泥。这是我们想尽量挨近原有工厂场址的另一个动机。巴黎市政部门听取了我们的意见,批准了这一计划。他们认为我们的建议与他们希望保留新Bruneseau区的综合用途建筑物的观点是一致的。”

一件艺术品

一件由Laurent Grasso创作的艺术品正在接受检验。它将给这个原本就别具风格的城市项目带来一番新的面貌。


Architects: vib architecture

Location: Paris, France

Architects In Charge: Bettina Ballus, Franck Vialet

Area: 4478.0 sqm

Year: 2014

Photographs: Stéphane Chalmeau, Daniel Moulinet, Courtesy of vib architecture

Design Architects: Antoine Bourdeau, Marlène Bourque, Célia Horn

Construction Architect: Célia Horn

Sustainable Certification: Plan Climat Ville de Paris

Engineering + Construction Method And Coordination: Jacobs France

Acoustics: Peutz & Ass

Façade Design Consultant: Arcora

Contractors: Sogea TPI (Buildings) - Ibau Hamburg (Process)

From the architect. The context

The project is located 5 meters away from Paris eastern ring road, at the end of Zac Rive Gauche’s large development district. Urban studies conducted by Ateliers LION since 2000, as well as new Urban regulation (PLU) updated in 2010, have made room for a new Bruneseau Nord neighborhood. This project is characterized by high rise buildings and mixed programs where architecture and infrastructure meet. To allow for this new development, the city of Paris has asked Ciments Calcia to give up their existing distribution center located near the Seine, and offered a new site closer to the existing rails out of Austerlitz station. Semapa undertook the building of this new project for Ciments Calcia.

Pre-requisites

The project, which transforms an industrial facility into an urban sculpture, is to be considered as the first step of a process to transform the new Bruneseau Nord site.

3 conditions were called for to make this building possible:

• the urban and political vision to extend the city to the East with a pedestrian link from Paris to Ivry. The existing centre was linked to the rail network via a single rail line that cut diagonally through the neighborhood. The new building obviously needed to be moved to allow for this new large development.

• the desire to develop this forgotten industrial area, despite the difficulties linked to the many existing networks and technical issues or urban rules, as well as the decision to maintain this industrial activity within the city’s new fabric.

• the presence of a contractor such as Vinci TPI, specialized in civil engineering structures was needed to raise the main silos and gave us a rare chance to design buildings with unusual tools and resources, usually reserved for large infrastructure design.

The architect project

«This project is the first step to develop Paris’s new Eastern district. The initial question for us clearly was to insert the project in the coming urban project and bring in «bold design» to the industrial plant. The project was long to design at first, due to high stakes and its noticeable location along Paris’ ring road - Europe’s busiest freeway with an average 300.000 vehicles a day. The initial 50 meter high silos project was rejected during the building approval phase - despite urban planning and new regulations allowing for high rises, and we were asked to redesign a 37 m high project to fit Paris’s usual maximum height. This implied new major constraints. The silos had to be widened to 20m to allow for the same volume of cement, making the site almost too small to hold the program.

At this stage in june 2011, we had one weekend to design a whole new project and be ready for a last chance meeting, attended by every authority involved with the project. These constraints called for a bold and clear project.

By that time, it was obvious that Calcia - who would be running the center - would prefer materials that promote their people’s skills and business of making and selling cement, to erect wonderful buildings around the city.

Our answer was what it is now: first, the main silos had to be inserted in the one and only position that allowed for all existing flux and networks to work. Then the quality control center , because it had to rest on ground, was slided underneath the “peripherique”. The office building was set right on the property limit and high on pilars for trucks to come in below. The whole program could then be linked together by a vertical cylinder housing a stair and lift. The project had become quite simple: the whole program, including offices and quality control center, was inserted in 5 different indiviual silos, all made of concrete, rising from the ground surfaced with concrete too».

The Scale of the Building

One is now instantaneously overwhelmed by the mass of the project. Although it uses common technical language and fittings, the building has been transformed into a unique work space, dedicated to the material it contains: the silos, the stair tour, the offices, the test center and the ground too, are all made from concrete. The material reveals much of its plastic potential. Not one element that stands out. The project is a whole, it is alive, a sort of abstraction of bodies rising from the ground and attracting each other into one unique place.

Many techniques used for construction

The project relies on many different uses of concrete. The main silos and the vertical tower were cast in slipform, a robust method to do this. The platform, rose by 2,5 cm per hour which took 3 weeks, day and night, in February, and 2 weeks in June 2013 to get to the top of each of the 37m silos, with an average of 15 workers constantly on deck.

The shells for the horizontal silos were prefabricated, then trucked-in, lifted, rolled and fitted in no more than 24 hours for each entity.

Polygonal windows

For the office and quality control center, the light at either end of the ‘silos’ was not enough for all work spaces. The opening on the shells had to be big enough to bring in light but small enough to keep the mass and the surface. The polygonal shape chosen for these openings was imagined as a form of abstraction of two different ideas: the shape of the stones that are used in making the concrete as one, or a mineral fragment or a broken rock as another.

The making of the fixed polygonal aluminum windows was complex. The first issue was the geometry of the polygon meeting with the cylindrical shell - that was sorted with the offices 3D tools. The second, more complex issue, was that to do with current regulations that require really sophisticated de- sign for waterproofing and drainage. We called-in Arcora, our usual facade engineers, to help us design these and make them fit current standards.

The vertical lift/stair tower is the most visible piece of the building, that acts as a signal by rising only 5 meters from the ring road. The design for the openings is similar but they were fitted with a simple inox mesh. We wanted the openings to widen up and lighten up as the tower rises, in contrast to the main silos in the background.

The Fence

Special attention was required for the main fence. It was agreed that the center should be perceivable from the street. Our system allows for visual porosity on the industrial activity, without imposing the heavy trucks onto the new quarter. Our proposal allows for the site to be seen, or hidden, depending on the angle from which one looks.

A Sustainable Project

«Considering the new urban project, it was obvious that our existing plant had to be moved if we wanted to keep our activity running in Bruneseau, says Jerome Lestringant, general manager for Ciments Calcia’s distribution centers in France. The catchment area of our existing center in Tolbiac was quite concentrated and dense: around 80% of our clients are within 30 km around the site. We obviously wanted to stay near them»

Stay as close as possible to the City

«The key quality for the existing plant in Tolbiac rests in its strategic position at the heart of the city. While 100% of the cement comes upstream by train, the last few kilometers made downstream by truck by our clients, is usually done in the opposite direction from main urban traffic directions. Moving the plant away from this position would have increase truck movements by15 000 a year, in the direction identival to the already oversaturated general traffic.»

«Our aim was to create a sustainable project, says M. Lestringant. We wanted to maintain the rail delivery, and to keep the possibility to supply our cement via the nearby Seine. That was another incentive to stay close to our old site. The city of Paris heard our arguments and approved our plans. They rightly considered that our proposal fitted with their vision of preserving mixed uses in the new Bruneseau district.»

A piece of art

A work of art, imagined by Laurent Grasso is currently being tested. It will give yet another dimension to this already atypical urban project.