挪威,奥斯陆,奥斯陆机场世界绿色航空站建筑采访 / Nordic建筑师事务所

Nordic建筑师事务所的设计将机场容量从1900万人次提升到预计未来3000万的载客量。行人流量也得到了改善,最大步行距离只有450米,远远短于其他机场。从环境的角度来看,该方案尽可能多地获得现场能源。在冬季,跑道的雪被收集并储存在仓库中,以便在夏季用作冷却剂。

整个项目均使用了天然材料。 新码头全部采用来自斯堪的纳维亚森林的木材,回收钢材和与火山灰混合的特殊环保混凝土也得到了大量使用。通过选择环保材料,建筑物的二氧化碳排放量减少了35%。增强的的隔热水平意味着项目已经达到被动式房屋水平的性能标准。与现有建筑相比,扩建项目的能源消耗减少了50%以上。

在整个方案中,设计师对乘客的舒适感和安全感给予了强烈的重视。例如,少量的人工造照明设计仅作为大量自然采光的补充,并反映着不同天气,季节和时间的不同状态。建筑紧凑的布局,透明和开放的空间加强了视觉通透感和路线辨认感。绿色的墙壁和水景使人们想起斯堪的纳维亚森林,而零售店被认为是与挪威景观相关的有机石形式。

设计邦:你能先解释一下你给这个项目的简介吗?

Nordic:目的是提高容量,处理每年乘客人数从19万人增加到3000万人次,同时通过机场改善乘客流量,并提供高水平的可持续性和乘客福利。 简介的另一个关键作用是更新综合火车站,改善公共交通工具的使用情况。

设计邦:在你完成了最初的机场18年后回到现场,感觉如何?

Nordic:实际上我们从未停止过在这个项目上的工作。 多年来,我们进行了一系列有限的的扩建和修缮,并且我们参加了2008年度新扩张的国际竞赛。赢得比赛是很荣幸的,因此我们就能够完成最初的设想了。

设计邦:自1998以来机场设计有多少变化?

Nordic:令人惊讶的是,原始设计的改动很少。我们延续了原有机场的永恒建筑表现和理性简洁。在新的扩建方案中,可持续性原则贯穿于整个设计。由于在冬季使用地源热技术提供取暖并且在夏季使用机场雪库的雪作为冷却剂,所以该建筑能源需求将极低。

Nordic:提高隔热水平和低空气渗透使项目能够实现示范性,达到被动式房屋水平的能源性能标准。为了提升乘客福利,我们引进了绿色壁画和水文要素,使人们联想到斯堪的纳维亚森林,离境区新免税区的零售单元被认为是与挪威景观相关的有机石形式。二楼的离港大厅重复了原始航空站的结构性胶合木屋顶梁的独特用途,借鉴了当地传统的精心设计的木材工程。

设计邦:作为计划的一部分,整合机场的火车站有多重要?

Nordic:可持续发展的整体方法的一部分是整合火车站和增加公共交通的使用。随着火车站的升级,现在已有70%的乘客乘坐公共交通工具进入机场,与其他机场相比,这一数字惊人地高。

设计邦:对这样的项目进行了什么样的研究和分析?

Nordic:对于这种规模的基础设施项目,有许多详细的研究涉及。我们与许多专家合作。从交通预测、物流模拟、可持续性模拟、乘客体验调查以及技术研究等方面,重点是改善乘客流量、能源消耗和总体碳足迹。

设计邦:有没有一个方面是你特别引以为傲的扩张?

Nordic:团队很高兴赢得了比赛,并且能够完成我们最初的设想。扩张现在已经嵌入整个机场,被认为是一个整体的概念,而不是一个补充。我们满足了客户的期望,并在时间和预算范围内交付了项目,而机场仍在全面运营。机场在建设期间被授予欧洲最准时的机场。我们对可持续性的整体和创造性方法已被授予BREEAM 的优秀机场建筑。


to understand more, we spoke with the architects behind the project who discussed the vast development in more detail. read our interview in full below, and see designboom’s previous coverage of the project here.nordic’s design increases airport capacity from 19 million passengers to an anticipated future capacity of 30 million. pedestrian flow has also been improved with a maximum walking distance of just 450 meters, much shorter than most airports. from an environmental standpoint, the scheme harvests as much on-site energy as possible. during wintertime, snow from the runways is collected and stored in a depot to be used as coolant in the summer.natural materials have been used throughout the project. the new pier is entirely clad in timber sourced from scandinavian forests, while recycled steel and environmentally friendly concrete mixed with volcanic ash have also been used. consequently, the building’s carbon dioxide emissions have been reduced by 35%. enhanced levels of insulation mean the project has achieved passive house level performance standards, with energy consumption in the new expansion cut by more than 50% compared to the existing terminal.throughout the scheme, a strong emphasis has been put on passenger comfort and well-being. for example, artificial lighting is used only as a minimal supplement to high levels of natural daylight, and can be set to reflect different moods according to weather, season, and time of day. meanwhile, the terminal’s compact and transparent layout enhances visual legibility and wayfinding. green walls and water features bring to mind scandinavian forests, while retail outlets have been conceived as organic stone forms associated with the norwegian landscape.designboom: can you start by explaining the brief you were given for this project?nordic: the aim was to improve capacity, to handle a passenger increase from 19 to 30 million passengers per year, whilst improving passenger flow through the airport and introducing high level of sustainability and passenger well-being. another key element of the brief was to update the integrated train station improving usage of public transport.DB: how did it feel to return to the site 18 years after you completed the original airport?nordic: we actually never stopped working on that project. throughout the years there has been a series of limited extensions and refurbishments, and we entered the international competition for the new expansion in 2008. it was an honor to win the competition so we were able to complete our original vision.DB: how much of the airport design has changed since 1998?nordic: there have been surprisingly few alterations made to the original design. we continued the timeless architectural expression and rational simplicity of the original airport. for the new expansion sustainability principles are embedded throughout the design. energy requirements will be extremely low due to the use of ground source heat technology to provide heating and the use of snow from the airport’s snow storage depot as coolant during summer.nordic (continued): enhanced levels of insulation and low air infiltration enable the project to achieve exemplary, passive house level energy performance standards. to enhance passenger well-being we introduced green walls and water features which are suggestive of scandinavian forests, the retail units in the new duty free areas in the departures area are conceived as organic stone forms associated with norwegian landscapes. the new departures hall on the second floor repeats the original terminal’s distinctive use of structural glulam roof beams, a reference to the local tradition for finely crafted timber engineering.DB: how important was integrating the airport’s railway station as part of the scheme?nordic: part of our holistic approach to sustainability was to integrate the train station and increase public transport usage. with the upgraded train station, 70% of all passengers now access the airport via public transport, which is astonishingly high compared to other airports.DB: what kind of research and analysis goes into a project like this?nordic: with infrastructure projects of this size, there is a lot of detailed research involved. we collaborated with a lot of experts. ranging from traffic forecasts, logistic simulations, sustainability simulations, passenger experience surveys, as well technical research, focus on improved passenger flows, energy consumption, and the overall carbon footprint.DB: is there one aspect of the expansion you are particularly proud of?nordic: the team was delighted that we won competition and were able to complete our original vision. the expansion is now embedded in the overall airport and is perceived as one holistic concept rather than an add on. we fulfilled the client’s expectations and delivered the project within time and budget – all whilst the airport remained fully operational. the airport was awarded the most punctual airport in europe during construction. our holistic and creative approach to sustainability has been awarded with BREEAM excellent.