荷兰, 鹿特丹, 华伦达停车楼/保罗·德·瑞特

建筑师:荷兰保罗·德·瑞特建筑设计事务所(Architectenbureau Paul de Ruiter bv)

地点:荷兰鹿特丹

项目建筑师:保罗·德·瑞特

项目组:Michael Noordam, Dieter Blok, Monique Verhoef, Willeke Smit, Sander van Veen

业主:Dienst Stadstoezicht Rotterdam & Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Rotterdam

结构顾问:ABT bv, adviseurs in bouwtechniek

安装顾问:Halmos bv

停车顾问:Spark / Twynstra Gudde, adviseurs en managers

城市设计:Rudy Uytenhaak Architectenbureau

工程承包方:Dura Vermeer Beton- en Waterbouw bv

建筑面积:21000平方米

设计时间:2002-2003

建造时间:2003-2005

摄影:Rien van Rijthoven

 

 

保罗·德·瑞特建筑设计事务所(PdR)受鹿特丹城市发展委员会和鹿特丹城市监管局的委托,设计一个高建筑品质的多层停车楼,以便解决靠近鹿特丹费耶诺德体育场的华伦达带状区域的停车问题,并Rudy Uytenhaak建筑设计事务所所做的城市规划相适应。停车楼在容纳下650辆汽车的同时,在街道层面上也为城市提供了商店和餐饮空间。

保罗·德·瑞特先生借助这个委托任务的机会设法提升多层停车楼的建筑形象。他设计的这个建筑不仅有引人注目的外观,而且还有使人感到愉悦的内部空间。影响这个设计主角是人(使用者),而不是汽车。

华伦达多层停车楼

由于地块现状和建筑限高在此区域规划中被严格限定,由保罗·德·瑞特先生特意为此项目组织的设计团队,决定大量利用地下空间作为停车使用。华伦达停车楼合理地通过中庭将九层空间组织在一起:地上和地下各有四层停车空间。而商店和餐饮占据了首层。

停车楼的平面是倒圆角的梯形形状。地上结构与地下结构呈角度向内偏移。一个连续的、围绕着开敞中庭的、上下相通的运动线路就此产生。

简洁与高效

停车楼的布局简洁而高效。汽车沿着梯形平面的中间倾斜车道,围绕中心盘旋上升或下降。停车空间沿外墙、中心的开敞空间和倾斜车道布置。这个楼里除了有你寻找停车位时常见的缓慢,连续的上升或下降路线外,还有一个供地上四层停车层使用的环形快速出车路线。开敞的中庭区域有一个全景的玻璃电梯供行人到达停车楼各层。

自然光线

尺寸为16X22米的开敞中庭的最基本功能是,使自然光线和空气进入到整个停车楼; 并提升地下几层的整体环境并使其可以与地上的几层空间环境相媲美。光线的进入效果通过白色的天花、地面、墙体、柱子以及光线自身的艺术效果而得到加强。即使在地下层,使用者也会感受到自在,因为他们可以看到天空,体会到时刻与外界的联系。而且围绕开敞中庭盘旋而上或下的环形路线,使得使用者总是能够看到其间的人和车。

四个排风管子里安装了被压式风扇,以确保汽车排除的污浊空气能很快排除大楼。 遇到火灾时,这些风机能够反向吹风,吹走地下四层的大量空气,避免大火向下蔓延,也就是说,避免大火穿过中庭。

立面幕墙技术

为了实现保罗·德·瑞特先生所设想的,无论从内部还是外部都充满动感和清晰形象的最初概念设计,建筑师们在细部和材料运用上投入了大量精力。华伦达多层停车楼的立面幕墙由水平带状铝板组成,其局部穿插了小条的镜面玻璃。为了将可塑性和透明性协调融入到幕墙中,保罗·德·瑞特先生亲自设计并开发了穿孔折叠铝板。穿孔和折叠做法是经过无数次的实验才获得了这种最终想要的形式。玻璃和铝板形成整体的成型铝材幕墙效果,这也是专门为该建筑所设计。从建筑立面看,幕墙就像是发散的屏幕-接纳白天的自然光线并展示外面斑驳的景象。在晚上,室内的灯光穿过幕墙,整个大楼宛如一个明亮的大灯笼。

着眼细部

除了优雅的功能设计,是细部的雕琢使得华伦达多层停车楼如此与众不同。尽管上层建筑有所偏移,为了确保幕墙的平滑,保持整体形象,设计师和建造者完成了大量的精确工作。直线,弧线,对角线相遇的地方,决不能有明显的转折或切换。园角幕墙上的弧形玻璃也是精度要求极高的地方。因此,每个玻璃板都是按照幕墙精确的制作出来,并在现场玩拼图一样将他们精确的拼贴起来。这并非平淡的工作,当太阳光照在铝制幕墙银灰色的镜面玻璃带上,并反射出去时,整个建筑获得了多变的形象,使人印象深刻。

华伦达多层停车楼这种特异的幕墙工程和她圆角及局部转角的运用,创造出来一个抽象、动感、潇洒的建筑形象来。

早期研究

在获得华伦达多层停车楼设计任务之前,保罗·德·瑞特先生已经进行了一些停车场的研究。 他研究并分析了不同设计的优缺点,结论是:大量的停车场对使用者并不友好。例如,底线停车空间总是缺少自然光线,尽管自然光线能够使人们获得很好的方向感和安全感。自然光线可以用来指引出口,也可以用来创造地下停车空间和外界的联系。这么多年以来,人和车的体型都变大了,需要更多空间的老人也在增加。保罗·德·瑞特先生的研究成果是他获得灵感的来源:清晰的线路、宽裕和轻松的停车空间、引入自然光线并获得内外相通的感觉。

互动合作

一个建筑师设计多层停车楼需要具有多学科知识,比如民用工程和室内设计。其关键是在各学科之间互动反馈以创造出一个建筑学上的设计,部分情况下,需要与专家共享大量知识。在这个项目早期保罗·德·瑞特先生就紧密地与ABT咨询公司的岩土工程师和结构工程师以及承包商Dura Vermeer合作。这带来了有效的方法、独特的解决方案和各种创新技术的使用。这种集约化的设计方法是确保华伦达项目能够在预算范围内能够按时完工的原因之一,尽管设计周期很短。

独特的施工方法

在建造地下停车层的过程中使用了一个独特的施工方法:墙体-顶板法(walls-roof )。这种方法不同于标准的大开发施工方式。它不是从地基开始建起,而是相反的使用步骤。首先先挖地下一层,接着将其地基板做好。 这个板用来支撑各个方向的打板桩基础。之后,这个板下面的土壤被挖出,另一个板也相应放置在那里。如此一步步往下施工。挖出来的土壤通过楼层开洞部分被运出,也就是中庭的位置。

 

原文:http://www.archdaily.com/29874/veranda-car-park-paul-de-ruiter/

(转载请注明来源http://www.ArchGo.com建筑实例 建筑图片 建筑文章翻译)

Architect: Paul de Ruiter

Location: Rotterdam, Netherlands

Project Architect: Paul de Ruiter

Project Team: Michael Noordam, Dieter Blok, Monique Verhoef, Willeke Smit, Sander van Veen

Client: Dienst Stadstoezicht Rotterdam & Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Rotterdam

Construction Advisor: ABT bv, adviseurs in bouwtechniek

Installations Advisor: Halmos bv

Car Park Advisor: Spark / Twynstra Gudde, adviseurs en managers

Building Management: Gemeentewerken Rotterdam

Urban Design: Rudy Uytenhaak Architectenbureau

Contractor: Dura Vermeer Beton- en Waterbouw bv

Constructed Area: 21,000 sqm

Project Year: 2002-2003

Construction year: 2003-2005

Photographs: Rien van Rijthoven

To solve the parking problems in the Veranda strip close to the Feyenoord stadium in Rotterdam, Paul de Ruiter was commissioned, by the City of Rotterdam Development Corporation (OBR) and Rotterdam City Supervision (STZ), to design a multi-storey car park with a high-quality architectonic character that would fit in with the urban planning vision of architect Rudy Uytenhaak. The car park was to accommodate 650 cars, as well as providing space for shops and places to eat and drink in the section of the building at street level.

 

Paul de Ruiter took the opportunity of this commission to improve the image of multi-storey car parks. He designed a building that has not only an exterior that is attractive to look at, but an interior that is a pleasant place to be in. Instead of the cars, people are the central issue of the design.

 

VERANDA MULTI-STOREY CAR PARK

As the dimensions of the building plot and the height of the building were specified stringently in the zoning plan, the design team that was especially put together by Paul de Ruiter for this project, decided to locate a large proportion of the parking spaces underground. The Veranda car park is now organized around a void of nine levels: four parking levels underground and four parking levels above ground. The ground floor accommodates shops and places to eat and drink.

The floor plan of the car park building is trapezium-shaped with rounded corners and the superstructure is offset at an angle to the substructure. As a result, a sense of continuous circling movement is generated upwards and downwards around the large open area in the middle of the building.

 

SIMPLICITY AND EFFICIENCY

The layout of the car park is both simple and efficient. From sloping runways in the middle of the trapezium-shaped floor plan, cars move in a spiral upwards or downwards around the centre. The car parking space is arranged both along the outer walls and beside the central open area and the sloping runway. Alongside the slow, straight ascending or descending route that you naturally follow when looking for a parking space, there is also a fast circular route for exiting from the four parking levels above ground. The parking levels are accessible to pedestrians via a glass panoramic lift that ascends from the void in the central open area.

 

DAYLIGHT

The primary function of the central open area, measuring 16 x 22 metres, is to allow more light and air to penetrate into the car park, to improve the ambience of the underground levels and ensure that these are not inferior to the levels above ground. The permeation of light is reinforced by the white ceilings, floors, walls and the pillars of the void and the light artwork that is incorporated into it. Even underground, visitors can find their bearings, because they can see the sky and retain a link with the outer world. The siting of circular routes running upwards and downwards around the central open area means that visitors can always see where the cars and people are.

In four exhaust tubes the back pressure fans are positioned, which ensure that the polluted air from cars is extracted from the building. If a fire breaks out, the machines reverse and blow large quantities of air to level -4 of the car park, so that the fire is forced out, so to speak, through the void.

 

FAÇADE TECHNOLOGY

In order to create the dynamic and at the same time clear image that Paul de Ruiter had in mind - both from the inside and the outside - great attention was paid to the details and materials of the façade design. The façade of the Veranda multi-storey car park is composed of horizontal strips of aluminium, alternated with small strips of mirror glass. To combine plasticity and transparency in the façade, Paul de Ruiter himself developed the perforated and folded (deep-drawn) aluminium panels. The perforation and folding profile were tested in numerous test panels to achieve the desired result. The glass and the aluminium panels are contained in extruded aluminium profiles, which were also specially designed for this project. From the inside, the façade acts as a diffuse screen that admits daylight and gives a fragmented view of the outside world. In the evenings, the façade allows artificial light through and the building shines like a massive lantern.

 

EYE FOR DETAIL

Apart from the spacious and functional design, it is the details that make the Veranda multi-storey car park identifiable. To ensure that the offset in the upper levels of the façade became a smooth, uninterrupted pattern of lines, the designer and constructor had to work with great precision. Where straight, curved and diagonal lines meet, no abrupt transition must be visible, and precision was also required for the round corners of curved glass. Therefore every glass panel for the façade sections was made to measure, and these were then put together like a jigsaw puzzle at the construction site. The sun is reflected by the silver-grey mirrored glass strips that interrupt the aluminium façade. This generates a variegated appearance and gives expression to the building.

The specific façade construction of the Veranda multi-storey car park has resulted in an abstract, dynamic façade that gives the building a chic appearance with its rounded corners and rotations.

 

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

Before receiving the commission to design the Veranda multi-storey car park, Paul de Ruiter carried out an analysis of car parks. He took measurements and analysed the strong and weak points of various designs. His conclusion was that many car parks are user-unfriendly. For example, there is often little daylight in underground car parks, even though daylight helps enormously in providing orientation and the feeling of safety. Daylight can be used to mark exits and create connections between the underground parking levels and the outer world. Besides this, there is not always sufficient space, which detracts from the quality of the car park. Over the years both people and cars have become larger, and the number of older people needing more room to move has increased. Paul de Ruiter’s findings inspired him to pay particular attention to clear routing, parking spaces of ample size and ease of parking, and to the availability of daylight and sense of contact with the outer world.

The specific façade construction of the Veranda multi-storey car park has resulted in an abstract, dynamic façade that gives the building a chic appearance with its rounded corners and rotations.

 

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

Before receiving the commission to design the Veranda multi-storey car park, Paul de Ruiter carried out an analysis of car parks. He took measurements and analysed the strong and weak points of various designs. His conclusion was that many car parks are user-unfriendly. For example, there is often little daylight in underground car parks, even though daylight helps enormously in providing orientation and the feeling of safety. Daylight can be used to mark exits and create connections between the underground parking levels and the outer world. Besides this, there is not always sufficient space, which detracts from the quality of the car park. Over the years both people and cars have become larger, and the number of older people needing more room to move has increased. Paul de Ruiter’s findings inspired him to pay particular attention to clear routing, parking spaces of ample size and ease of parking, and to the availability of daylight and sense of contact with the outer world.

INTERACTION

An architect designing multi-storey car parks needs to understand a wide range of disciplines, such as civil engineering and interior design. The challenge is to create an architectonic design from the interaction between these disciplines, partly by aiming at intensive knowledge sharing with experts. In this commission, Paul de Ruiter decided to work intensively with the geotechnical and structural engineers of building consultancy ABT and the contractor Dura Vermeer from an early stage. This led to an efficient approach, ingenious solutions and the use of various innovative techniques. The integrated approach to the design was one of the reasons that it was possible to complete the Veranda multi-storey car park within the time schedule and the specified budget, despite a very short design period.

 

UNUSUAL CONSTRUCTION METHOD

An unusual construction method was used to build the underground parking levels; the walls-roof method. This method does not start with the standard full-depth excavation, where the structure is built up from the base, but reverses the construction procedure. Excavation first takes place to the depth of the first parking level, and the first basement floor is laid here. This floor is used to support the sheet piling foundations on all sides. After that, the ground under the floor is excavated and the subsequent floor is laid, progressing downwards step by step. The removal of soil takes place through the opening in the floors, the void.

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