荷兰, 阿姆斯特丹, 白莫公园剧场/保罗·德·瑞特

建筑师:保罗·德·瑞特建筑设计事务所

地点:荷兰阿姆斯特丹Anton de Komplein

项目建筑师:保罗·德·瑞特

项目组:Willem Jan Landman, Dieter Blok

业主:阿姆斯特丹市政府及东南区政府

结构咨询:Arup bv

安装咨询:Halmos bv

升学咨询: DHV-Dorsser Blesgraaf

剧场咨询: Theateradvies bv

城市设计:Rein Geurtsen & Partners bv bureau voor stadsontwerp / 梅卡诺

建筑面积: 1953平方米

设计时间:2005-2007

建造时间:2007-2009

摄影:Pieter Kers

 

 

2004年,保罗·德·瑞特应邀参加为阿姆斯特丹市东南区设计文化建筑挑选建筑师的竞赛。这个文化建筑物是个为四种使用者服务的多功能体,包括一个马戏团(Elleboog马戏团),一个剧院(Krater剧院),青年戏剧学校和剧院工作室,以及这个区域的其他所有职业团体,例如有潜质的、文教类的、创作与计划型的组织。

由于保罗·德·瑞特的系统性汇报,其中包括他对功能性动态设计的提案,他的建筑设计事务所获到阿姆斯特丹和东南区政府的认可,得到设计该文化建筑的权利。

功能的动态设计

你如何才能在有限的时间内确保一个设计过程能够高效、明确和协调地产出,与此同时你还得考虑可能相冲突的,来自四个不同使用者的使用要求和兴趣?保罗·德·瑞特发展出了一个动态的功能组合模式-灵活的平面设计过程,但不必拘泥于细节。

为了明确所有使用者的愿望并融汇到设计中,也为了给使用者提供一个好的建筑概念,在设计阶段举行了几次讨论会。 讨论会上,使用者和设计师共同设计平面布局形式,这种设计在之后会定期回顾审视。最终,一个让参与其中的各方都满意的设计产生了。

讨论会

设计过程起始于对文化建筑的功能组织研究。保罗·德·瑞特建筑设计事务所制作了不同比例的实体模型,展现出不同的形式和布局组合方式。当把这些模型摆放在桌子上时,讨论会上的头脑风暴环节就能很好的进行,以便确定这个建筑到底什么样,这么多功能到底怎样放入其中。考虑到此文化建筑物坐落在公园中,一个易于辨识,展馆似的建筑形象得到认可,而其平面布局也能很好的适应不同使用者的要求。

聚会地点

此建筑坐在地点其实已经在城市发展规划中被强调出。剧场物位于白莫(Bijlmer)区域的中心,白莫公园边缘,紧邻湖面。这个建筑是公共的和易于到达的,它临水而建和其水中倒影为这个区域带来了额外的活力。为了是水上表演成为可能,例如水上漂浮的舞台,岸边设计了可当作座位的亲水台阶。没有表演的时候,这些台阶就是聚会的地方,文化人、艺术家和兴趣相投的人可以聚集在一起。

动态感

该建筑由一个椭圆形组成,只是上面的两层和底层有点错位。这产生了一个被遮盖的入口区域,也与城市发展规划的路线相一致。

而椭圆形的体型意味着需要找到一个经济可行的方法来解决部分玻璃立面的弧形问题。解决方法是,运用木条和竖向铝片构件覆盖在钢和玻璃组合的立面上面。这样做的效果是,分段的立面交接点不见了,这个建筑看上去圆滑、动感,有着抽象化的统一形象,并且当你围绕它走动时,每个角度都不同。

可识别的设计

白天,这个剧场因为它显著的体型使得它清晰、易于辨认;而晚上它因为自身的色彩同样引人注意,并且这些色彩可以根据不同的活动而变化。夜间色彩的变化由于建筑设计有LED照明而成为可能。在金属立面的后面和里面安装有成条的LED等,能依次点亮。正因为金属立面和木条后面闪亮的灯光,整个建筑获得了一个半透明的效果,就好象灯光是从建筑物内部射出来的一样。剧场的外部照明使得它在这个区域清晰可见,也增强了它的安全性。

自然采光

有个要求在讨论会上被特别地提出来:主剧场区域需要自然采光。课程和彩排都将在白天举行,好的自然采光对当时的氛围和方向辨别将有很重要的作用。

讨论会上,使用者总是抱怨他们参观的剧场缺少自然光。当然这种缺少自然光线的做法是故意为了表演而设计的,是可以理解的。但对于表演来说,自然光线也确实是很值得考虑的。基于这样的考虑,二层环绕主剧场部分设计了贯通的玻璃窗。这种设计不仅使最大化地获得自然光线成为可能,这也使得父母或其他感兴趣的人群旁听课程或观看彩排,且不产生干扰成为可能。这些窗子在有表演进行时,可以调节阻挡光线进入。

灵活性

讨论会中大部分的时间都用在明确使用者的期望与主剧场之间的关系。例如,Elleboog马戏团需要一个净高7米的空间表演杂技、高空秋千和翻滚动作。而其他的共用者希望主剧场能更像一个剧场该有的样子。解决方法是设计一个带有侧台的矩形剧场,这可以使主剧场在作为马戏表演或歌剧表演时,座位数能在162和277个之间调整。这两个靠近舞台的圆弧侧台可以满足马戏表演和歌剧表演的不同组合要求,例如打开侧台,或者放置活动的座椅。

多功能性

除了主剧场区,该建筑还包括一个宽敞的门厅、排练室、三个工作室、储藏室、更衣室、裁缝室、会议设施和办公室。剧场容纳四个使用者,并隶属于阿姆斯特丹艺术学校舞蹈班。所有使用者被精心安排这个三层的建筑物里。其中主剧场三层通高,有一个工作室两层高。
顶层控制舞台灯光的跨桥和设备被设置在混凝土层,这种做法经济、实惠、安全也便于操作设备。

灵感源泉

剧场设计的整个过程都是创造性的集中体现。这不仅因为使用了一个不一般的方法,也是使用了举行讨论会的良好结果。没有讨论会都在一个不同的,非传统的剧场里举行;这些剧场都是使用者里的某一方挑选的。每次讨论会之前都会有一个对该剧场的参观活动,建筑师、使用者和顾客可以分析这个剧场的优缺点,以便为头脑风暴环节提供灵感。这些讨论会在舞台举行,并且有超过一次的讨论会上,会在舞台举行一个表演,来测试这个剧场的大小,功能性和声学设计。会议的议程和纪要都不是问题,关键是使创新性能信马由缰地在会议上产生和讨论。大部分时候,讨论结果会被汇总并且作为下一阶段的工作基础。这是一个极度灵活、切实可行的方法,并且带来了一个吸引人的、多功能性的设计。

互动性

在自然采光和灵活空间布局共识的基础上,该剧场最大范围地提供了自由发挥和创造性空间。这个过程充满了开放性。因此该建筑在方便有潜质人才方面发挥了重要作用,尤其是对于儿童和青年人。四方固定的使用者(Elleboog马戏团、Krater剧院、青年戏剧学校和剧院工作室)将公用这个建筑,并创造出一个巨大的合作和文化交融空间。这个多方讨论的地方也来源于阿姆斯特丹市东南区的多样性特征。为了促进多加深入的互动性,主剧场区暴露在门厅的墙体被涂成了黑色,旁边摆放着粉笔。来访者,尤其是孩子可以在这面墙上自由的绘画书写,留下他们的评价和问候。黑色的主剧场墙体使得建筑的空间布局清晰并给人一种明确的方向感。 很明显,这里就是整个剧场最具活力的核心。

白莫公园剧场得到了欧盟的支持,才得以实现。

 

原文:http://www.archdaily.com/23279/bijlmer-park-theater-paul-de-ruiter/

(转载请注明来源http://www.ArchGo.com建筑实例 建筑图片 建筑文章翻译)

Architect: Paul de Ruiter

Location: Anton de Komplein, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Project Architect: Paul de Ruiter

Project Team: Willem Jan Landman, Dieter Blok

Client: City of Amsterdam, Stadsdeel Zuidoost

Construction Advisor: Arup bv

Installations Advisor: Halmos bv

Acoustic Advisor: DHV-Dorsser Blesgraaf

Theater Advisor: Theateradvies bv

Urban Design: Rein Geurtsen & Partners bv bureau voor stadsontwerp / mecanoo architecten bv

Constructed Area: 1,953 sqm

Project Year: 2005-2007

Construction year: 2007-2009

Photographs: Pieter Kers

In 2004, Paul de Ruiter was invited to compete in the selection of the architect who would design a cultural building in the southeast district of the city of Amsterdam. This cultural building was to be a multifunctional building for four users; a circus (Circus Elleboog), a theatre (Krater Theater), the Youth Theatre School and the Theatre Workplace, all professional organisations in the field of talent development, cultural education, production and programming.

 

On the basis of a presentation of his vision, including his proposal to work with a dynamic programme of requirements, Paul de Ruiter’s architectural bureau was selected by the city of Amsterdam, southeast district, to design the cultural building.

DYNAMIC PROGRAM OF REQUIREMENTS

 

How can you ensure that a design process proceeds efficiently, decisively and harmoniously when time is limited, but at the same time you must take into account the divergent requirements and interests of four different users? Paul de Ruiter developed a dynamic programme of requirements - a flexible design process with a plan that was not already drawn up in detail.

 

To identify the specific wishes of all the users and integrate them into the design and to give the users a good idea of the architectural possibilities, several workshops were held during the design stage. During these workshops, plans were made with the users and the customer, and these were later reviewed at regular intervals. This finally yielded a design that satisfied the requirements of all the parties involved.

WORKSHOPS

 

The design process started with a study of the programme for the cultural building. Paul de Ruiter’s architectural bureau built various scale models that gave an indication of the different options for form and layout. With these models on the table, it was possible to hold brainstorming sessions during the workshops on what the building should look like and what functions it needed to fulfill. In view of the location of the cultural building in a park, a recognizable, pavilion-like building was chosen with a layout that could be adapted to the various requirements of the users.

MEETING PLACE

 

The site of the cultural building is specified in the urban development plan. The building is located in the heart of the Bijlmer neighbourhood at the edge of the Bijlmer park, beside the lake. It is public and accessible, and its position beside the water gives extra dynamism to this image due to the reflections in the water. To make it possible for performances to be held on the water as well, for example on large floating platforms, steps that can be used for seating have been placed at the water’s edge. When no performances are scheduled, the steps function as a meeting place, where cultures, generations and artistic disciplines meet each other.

DYNAMICS

 

The cultural building consists of an ellipse shape, with the upper two floors slightly displaced in relation to the ground floor. This provides a covered entrance area located in a logical position in the urban development plan’s routing.

 

The elliptical shape of the building did mean that it was necessary to search for a financially viable way of reproducing this rounded shape in the partially glass façade. The solution was found in a combination of wooden slats and vertical aluminum strips placed against the steel and glass sections of the facade. This means that the intersection points of the segmented façade are not visible and the building has a rounded, dynamic and somewhat abstract appearance that changes continually as you walk around it.

RECOGNIZABLE DESIGN

 

During the day, the striking shape of the cultural building makes it clearly recognizable, while it is conspicuous in the evening because of its color, which can be altered to fit the occasion. This is made possible by the use of LED lighting. A line of light is fitted behind the steal façade in the façade, shining downwards. Because this light shines against the steel façade and the wooden slats, the building acquires an appearance of transparency, as if the light is coming from inside the building. The illumination of the building increases the level of safety and makes the cultural building clearly visible from the urban surroundings.

DAYLIGHT

 

One requirement that was specifically identified during the workshops was the need for daylight in the main auditorium. Lessons and rehearsals would take place here during the day, and a good level of daylight access is very important for the atmosphere and sense of orientation.

 

In the theaters that were visited for the workshops, the users often commented on the lack of daylight, which although understandably kept out deliberately for performances, is still very desirable during the day. For this reason, a glass surround was created on the first floor all around the main auditorium. This solution not only allows a maximum capture of light, it also makes it possible for parents and others who may be interested to watch lessons and rehearsals unobtrusively. These windows can be darkened to keep out the light when performances are held.

FLEXIBILITY

 

During the workshops, the most time, relatively speaking, was spent on identifying the users’ wishes in relation to the main auditorium. Circus Elleboog, for example, needed a space with a clear height of 7 meters for acrobatic, trapeze and juggling acts, while the preference of the other partners was for a theater-style auditorium. A solution was found by designing a rectangular auditorium with two ear-shaped appendages beside the performing area - a circus/theater auditorium with between 162 and 277 seats. These two rounded areas on the long sides of the main auditorium make it possible to use this in a range of circus configurations and theater configurations, by making use of versatile wings and movable seating areas.

MULTIFUNCTIONAL

 

In addition to the main auditorium, the cultural building has a spacious foyer, rehearsal rooms, three studios, storage rooms, dressing rooms, a sewing room, meeting facilities and offices. The building accommodates the four user groups in the dance class of the Amsterdam School of Arts. For all these users the three storeys are arranged. The main auditorium extends to the height of all three storeys and one of the studios is two storeys high.

 

On the top storey, the bridges for the operation of lighting and set management are integrated into the concrete floor. This is a practical and inexpensive solution that makes the bridges safe and easily accessible.

INSPIRATION

 

The design process for the cultural building was full of creativity. This was not just due to the unusual approach, but was also and primarily a result of the way the workshops were organized. Each workshop was held in a different, unconventional theater, selected each time by one of the users. During a guided tour preceding the workshop, the architect, users and customers were able to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of that particular theater, and inspiration was gathered for the brainstorming session. This then took place on stage, and on more than one occasion, a performance was given to test the size, functionality and acoustics of the space. There was no question of meeting agendas and minutes; the idea was to give creativity free rein. At most, a list of points was put together at the end of the workshop to act as a basis for the following session. This was an extremely flexible, practically-oriented approach, which resulted in an attractive and multifunctional design.

INTERACTION

 

As a result of the ample admission of light and the flexible layout, the cultural building offers maximum scope for freedom and creativity. It radiates openness. The building therefore plays an important role in facilitating the development of talent, particularly in children and young people. The regular tenants (Circus Elleboog, the Youth theatre school, the theatre workplace and Krater Theatre) will work together in this building, creating an enormous level of synergy, a melting pot of cultures. A place for debates inspired by the diversity of the southeast district of the city of Amsterdam. To stimulate this interaction even further, the outer wall of the auditorium, most of which runs through the foyer, will be painted with blackboard paint, and chalks will be available everywhere. Visitors, particularly children, will then be free to leave their message, comment or greeting on the wall. The black outer wall of the auditorium also makes the layout of the theatre clear and facilitates the feeling of orientation. It is obvious that this is the dynamic heart of the cultural building.

 

The Bijlmer Parktheatre is made possible with help from the EU.

版权:翻译 www.ArchGo.com 光辉

(点击此处下载所有大图9.17M)