英国,爱丁堡,日式住宅/ Konishi Gaffney

建筑师:Konishi Gaffney Architects

地点: 苏格兰爱丁堡

项目年份:2008-2009

摄影: Alan Craigie & Kieran Gaffney

 

 

这个由建筑师小西加夫尼(Konishi Gaffney)在爱丁堡设计和自建的日式房子,是一栋朴素的家庭住宅和工作室。

场地是块200平方米的褐色实地,以前是机械的车库,处于Portobello内一条后巷。该场地获得了两套公寓的建设许可,但是却有一些建造条件,包括屋顶高度和坡屋顶的限制。

在这个繁忙而缺少自然的场地,需要在保护隐私的同时争取房子内阳光和被动式太阳能的利用。为了保护房主隐私,住宅的背面朝向小巷。住宅东面,花园的大滑动玻璃门都滑出后会形成5.5mx2.4m门洞朝着花园;窗子把清晨的阳光带入房间内,开始一天的加热周期。

住宅南面,面向小巷,一个大型的玻璃角窗把南面的光和热带入房子的心脏部位。阳光通过双层高空间斜射到用来蓄热的混凝土地面上。首层条状的窗户围绕整个房子设置,确保了隐私,同时使房子像是漂浮在花园的高墙上,这是典型的波托贝洛(Portobello)式布置方式。在内部这却像是形成了一个1800毫米高的狭窄画框。

这栋房子内敛而严谨,通过修复mews住宅(一种英国早期的住宅形式,下面是储藏室,上层是居住房间)边界,并延续之前面向花园的露台形式来体现其城市功能。屋顶用石板瓦盖以适应周围的建筑。 住宅用一个烟囱(供烧木头的火炉所用),增加了天际线的视觉趣味。

我们的意图是实现简单、低廉的建造。房子为木架构,混凝土基础以避免车辆的碰撞。同样的,排水沟和污水渠凹入式建造,起到保护和创造干净美观的作用。细节处理简洁,运用粗大的接合构建做不显眼处理,并掩盖阴影缝隙和连接扣条。

自始至终材料都是选用当地的,比如,用于覆层和滑动玻璃门的苏格兰橡树是从一个不到20公里外的小木材厂运来的。可回收材料被尽可能的运用,如铝水槽和污水渠,地面的混凝土的选择都经过仔细的权衡,以达到能源成本与利益的平衡。

该房子有非常好的保温隔热性能,在春,夏,秋季,依靠被动式太阳能循环功能,无需加热。冬季的地板采暖是舒适而有效的空间供暖手段,而顶部取暖由一个烧木头的火炉提供。

日式住宅

住宅11号是我们在日本生活和工作时(2004年 - 2007年)设计的,在我们返回英国时(2008-2009)建造而成。作为苏格兰-日本家庭,我们采用了一些日本的元素。

Nuri-en

我们着迷于日式空间的丰富多彩,从传统房子的中心到外部,穿过一系列灰空间-内部的缘侧(Engawa)和外部的濡侧(Nure-en)。我们使用濡侧以创造一个外部覆盖的区域,模糊了内部和外部的差别。混凝土墙体限定出推拉门的位置,并向外稍许伸出。平面屋顶悬挑出来,保护这个空间不受不良天气影响,从而保证推拉门每天的开关,并方便雨天晾洗衣物。

Daikokubashira——大黑柱

设计的一个关键因素是一根主要的支柱,所谓的Dai Koku Bashira——大黑柱。从字面理解就是Dai——大、koku——黑、bashira——柱。它传统上位于房子中心并靠近厨房,主体结构是为了支撑日本农村住房。它象征着神道宗教根源。财富、命运和五谷之神,传说居住在大黑柱中。我们大黑柱还有更多的实用功能:当他们成长在这新房子时,刻画出我们3个孩子的身高,记下时间。柱子就近取材,用的是一颗100岁的老橡树,大约80年前就被它周边的树木挤迫而倒掉了。边材都腐烂了,我们把原木搬到正确位置再把它碳化成黑色,最后把它放置在光滑的混凝土地面上用来支撑房子上部结构。

Kotatsu, Tatami heya & Genkan ——被炉(暖桌)、榻榻米房间&玄关

我们用轻混凝土浇筑了带有地暖的一个被炉。在楼上,我们在空地上安放了4个榻榻米席子用来赏月。在入口处,我们设计了一个缘侧,用以区分出房子私密部分和公共部分;我们在进入房子时有一个宽——窄——宽的变化;而访客可以直接到达办公空间而避开居住房间。

烧杉板(Shou sugi ban)

这种传统的包层技术,使用烧焦杉板,用来防水,防止腐烂,减少木材表面易燃程度。在我们的橡木经过炭化试验后,我们继续对首层一块区域的木材包层的表现进行处理,并检测效果。

  

 

原文:http://www.archdaily.com/53261/the-japanese-house-konishi-gaffney-architects/

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Architects: Konishi Gaffney Architects

Location: Edinburgh, Scotland

Project Year: 2008-2009

Photographs: Alan Craigie & Kieran Gaffney

The Japanese House is a modest family house and studio in Edinburgh designed and self built by Konishi Gaffney architects.

 

The site was a small 200sqm brown-field site, formerly a mechanic’s garage, on a back lane in Portobello. The site had planning permission for 2 flats and the process which led to this planning permission had formed a number of restrictions including maximum eaves height and pitch to the roof.

The congested and overlooked nature of the site required careful articulation to provide privacy while still allowing sunshine and passive solar gain into the house. The house turns its back on the lane in order to protect privacy within the house. To the East and the garden three large sliding glass doors all slide out the way to form a 5.5mx2.4m opening to the garden. These windows open the house up to early morning sun, starting the heating cycle.

 

To the South, to the lane, a large glazed corner brings South light and warmth into the heart of the house. Sunlight falls diagonally through a double height space onto the concrete floor, used for its thermal mass. Strip windows to the ground floor provide privacy and articulate the house as floating over the high garden wall, a typical Portobello arrangement, which continues as a strip around the house. Internally this is expressed as a narrow picture rail shelf at 1800mm.

The house is modest and restrained. It performs an urban function by completing the mews edge and fulfilling what is likely to be an end of terrace role as the adjacent gardens are developed over time. The roof is slate to match the surrounding buildings. It has a chimney – a wood burning stove – to add visual interest to the skyline.

 

Our intention was to build simply and cheaply. The house is timber framed with a concrete base to protect from vehicular traffic, similarly gutters and downpipes are recessed for protection and to create a clean aesthetic. Details are simple with butt joints and unpretentious junctions and a general avoidance of shadow gaps or cover strips.

Local materials were selected throughout, for example Scottish Oak used for the cladding and sliding glass doors came from a small timber mill less than 20 miles away. Recyclable materials were used where possible such as aluminium gutters and downpipes, and concrete for the floor was selected with careful weighing up of the energy cost versus benefits.

 

The house is super insulated and, in spring, summer and autumn while the passive solar cycle functions, requires no heating. In winter under floor heating is proving comfortable and efficient space heating while top up heating is provided by a wood burning stove.

A Japanese House

 

House 11 was designed while we were living and working in Japan (2004 – 2007) and built upon our return to the UK 2008-2009. As a Scottish – Japanese family we adopted a number of Japanese themes.

Nuri-en

 

We were interested in the variegation of space in Japan from the core of the traditional house to the outside through a series of ambivalent spaces, the internal Engawa and the outer Nuri-en. We used a Nuri-en to make an outside covered space and to blur the distinction between outside and in. The sliding doors are set flush into the concrete which flows outside to a narrow strip. A flat roof overhang protects this space from weather, allows sliding doors with brush seals and facilitates such daily life such as washing to be hung outside on rainy days.

Daikokubashira

 

A key element of the design was a central pillar, called a Dai Koku Bashira 大黒柱. Literally a big 大 black 黒 pillar 柱. This is traditionally located at the centre of the house near the kitchen. The main structural support for rural houses in Japan, it has symbolism rooted in the Shinto religion. Daikoku being the ‘God of wealth, fortune and the five cereals’ was held to reside in the big black pillar. Our Daikokubashira was also to have more pragmatic function: somewhere to carve our 3 children’s heights, to mark time, as they grow up in this new house. The post we used was locally sourced; a 100 year old oak tree which had fallen as a thinning, crowded out by it’s neighbours, about 80 years ago. The sapwood had all rotted away and after man handling the log into position and charring it to blacken it we simply cast it into the polished concrete floor to support the house above.

Kotatsu, Tatami heya & Genkan

 

We cast in the floor a low concrete kotatsu table with below ground heating. Upstairs we installed 4 tatami mats in space intended for tsukimi or moon viewing. At the entrance we created an Engawa for separation of the private parts of the house from public scrutiny; we have a wide-narrow-wide transition on entering the house and an office space that can be accessed by visitors without entering the house proper.

Shou sugi ban

 

This traditional cladding technique, using charred cedar boards, was used to waterproof, protect against rot and reduce the flamability of timber cladding. Having experimented by charring our oak post, we continued with this technique on an area of timber cladding at ground floor level and are monitoring its performance.