西班牙,罗萨莱斯德尔运河(Rosales del Canal)幼儿园/ Magén Arquitectos建筑师事务所

建筑师:Magén Arquitectos / Jaime Magén, Fco. Javier Magén

地点:西班牙萨拉戈萨(Zaragoza)

开发商:Government of Aragon

施工公司:Gótico Construcciones y Rehabilitaciones SA

项目面积:1,790.22平方米

预算:1,936,546.98欧元

项目年份:2009

摄影:Jesús Granada

罗萨莱斯德尔运河幼儿园坐落于西班牙萨拉戈萨西南部一片成长中的住宅区。这是某所小学教学设施项目的一期。教学楼应该交通便利,而且更适宜采取南北朝向,此处的三座建筑——幼儿园、餐厅/体育馆和小学教学楼——就非常符合这些标准,它们呈U形围绕在场地的边缘。幼儿园是单层建筑,其中有九间房间,环绕着建筑基地南侧的一个独立操场。窄长的连廊衔接着各个建筑。

由于儿童对建构环境具有特殊的认知,因此确立于项目伊始的两条主要思想就建立该基础之上。第一条与建筑的规模有关,建筑师尝试将公共设施的大体量与更加紧密的家用规模结合,这一点当然必须按照儿童标准建造;第二条则满足了这样一条设计思想:幼儿园想给孩子们带来有意义的空间体验,空间之中结合了他们富有创造力的世界。设计方案凭借对空间、光线、材质和色彩的应用,建立起儿童与建筑之间的感官联系。项目的平面布局和建造方法也符合以下决定性因素:必须在四个半月内竣工。

学校的基本单元就是教室。设计方案尤为关注这一空间的构成,并在其基本使用和形式之间创建联系,其中教室的形式被看成一种建筑元素,具有空间、结构和建设上的一致性。这些空间的平面为方形,上方是平顶金字塔形屋顶,平顶中镶有采光天窗,这种屋顶设计既认同了具有保护作用的坡屋顶,也有利于提升教室的高度和额外采光。较高的房间高度改善了夏天的隔热条件,而顶部采光也抵消了室内明亮的光线,获得更加协调的自然光线。教室屋顶的形式在许多重要空间都重复采用,如多功能大厅和餐厅。从外侧看,屋顶采光天窗单元描绘出幼儿园的轮廓,成为建筑的第五个立面,从位于基地其他部位的建筑中都能看到这里。

建筑的总体构成符合明确的组织标准,将教室围绕庭院设置,教室之间衔接以卫生间和设备区,在室内融入连续的室外连廊,而室外则对着庭院。前厅、多功能大厅、带接待处的行政管理区域、教师休息室和行政管理办公室都与建筑通道相连,完善了功能设计。可从教室中向外看到庭院的玻璃窗和玻璃门上采用电动板条来抵挡太阳辐射,采光天窗上也是如此。在休息时间,板条就遮住教室。墙体和屋顶的室内饰面带有多孔层压板,这些不同直径的圆孔提升了听觉上的舒适度,并成为空间的一大特色。

项目共形成四处各不相同的室外空间:入口庭院,在这里有一个宽敞门廊连接着通往两座建筑的通道,可在此接送孩子;主要的南向庭院具有不同的区域和结构:各种树种、喷泉、草坪、沙坑、混凝土铺路和橡皮铺面的游戏场地;庭院连接着位于街道边的多功能大厅,街道与大厅之间也铺着草坪,并栽种了许多树木;以及给前厅带去明亮光线的庭院,这里栽着一棵非常古老的油橄榄树。

由于需要尽快完工,因此建筑师仔细地考虑了建立在轻质构造和干建筑基础上的模块系统。苯酚面板通风立面外层用天然木材和太阳防护板条装饰(水平阳极氧化铝或垂直铝构件,根据情况喷涂上色),形成建筑物的外表皮结构。水平和垂直木板与彩色板材的结合赫然形成了极为大胆的构造,将活泼的气息引入1.20m×2.40m的立面模块中,符合建筑的性质。建筑的方位、立面的热惯性和遮阳构件,结合安装了太阳能集热器、地板辐射采暖系统和机械通风之后,进一步推动建筑拥有良好的能源性能。

原文:http://www.archdaily.com/55546/rosales-del-canal-kindergarden-magen-arquitectos/

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Architects: Magén Arquitectos / Jaime Magén, Fco. Javier Magén

Location: Zaragoza, Spain

Developer: Government of Aragon

Construction Company: Gótico Construcciones y Rehabilitaciones SA

Project Area: 1,790.22 sqm

Budget: 1,936,546.98 €

Project Year: 2009

Photographs: Jesús Granada

The Kindergarden in Rosales del Canal is located in an area of residential growth in the south-west of Zaragoza. This is the first phase of an educational facility that will be completed with the primary education building. In agreement with the criteria on accessibility and preferably south-facing orientation of teaching spaces, the three buildings – Kindergarten, dining hall/gymnasium and primary – are arranged in a U-shape on the perimeter of the plot. The Kindergarten is a horizontal construction that develops a nine units teaching programme, around an independent playground on the southern side of the site. A continuous linear porch links between the different buildings.

The two main ideas that existed at the start of the project are based on children’s special perception of the constructed environment. The first idea has to do with scale and tries to combine the general volumetrics of the public facility with the more intimate and domestic scale that must accompany the child. The second idea fulfils the conception of the centre as a significant experience in spatial terms, related to the children’s creative world. The proposal has to do with the sensorial relationship between children and architecture, through the use of space, light, materiality and colour. The layout and the constructive logic of the project also respond to the determining factor of the need to execute the construction work in four and a half months.

The basic unit of the school is the classroom. The proposal pays special attention to the configuration of this space, establishing a correlation between this essential use and a shape that can be identified as an architectonic element that has spatial, structural and constructive unity. With a square ground plan, the truncated pyramid-shaped roofing of these spaces, completed with a skylight, responds both to the primary identification of the sloping roofing with the protective roof of the house and to the advantages of height and additional lighting in the classrooms. The greater height improves thermal conditions in summer and the zenith lighting counteracts the luminous contrasts on the inside, obtaining more homogeneous natural lighting. The shape of the roofing of the classrooms is repeated to cover significant spaces that occupy a larger surface area such as the multipurpose hall and the dining-room. From the outside, the roofing-skylight unit defines the profile and the fifth façade of the centre, visible from the houses situated on the other side of the plot.

The general configuration of the building responds to clearly organisational criteria, placing the classrooms around the patio, with the toilets and service spaces situated between them and communicated on the inside with the corridor and on the outside with the patio, via the continuous exterior porch. The lobby, the multipurpose hall and an administrative area comprised of the reception, the teachers’ common room, and the administration and management offices linked to the building access, complete the functional programme. The glazed spaces of the classrooms that look out onto the patio are protected from solar radiation by motorised slats, which also exist in the skylight. These are used to darken the classrooms at rest times. On the interior, the finish of walls and roofs with perforated laminated panels and circles of different diameters improves the acoustic comfort conditions and characterises the inner space.

The project generates four differentiated outdoor spaces: the entrance patio, where an extensive porch connects the accesses to the two buildings, where the children can be picked up; the main south-facing patio has different areas and textures: different tree species, fountains, lawn, sandpit, concrete paving and play area with rubber paving; the patio linked to the multipurpose hall, situated next to the street, and with a lawn and trees; and the patio that illuminates the lobby, with the presence of a very old olive tree.

Modular systems, based on light and dry construction, were considered appropriate, due to the need for the construction to be done as quickly as possible. The ventilated façade of phenol panels finished in natural wood and solar protection slats (horizontal anodised aluminium ones or vertical aluminium ones painted in colour, depending on the case) define the exterior shell of the buildings. The combination of horizontal and vertical wooden panels and coloured boards forms an apparently adventurous composition that introduces a playful air into the strict 1.20 x 2.40 m modulation of the façade, in accordance with the nature of the building. The orientation of the building, the thermal inertia of the façades and the solar protection elements, together with the installation of solar collectors, the radiant floor system and the mechanical ventilation, promote good energy performance of the buildings.