南非,马篷古布韦(Mapungubwe)展览中心/Peter Rich建筑师事务所

去年,建筑摄影师Iwan Baan去南非参观了由Peter Rich建筑师事务所设计的Mapungubwe翻译中心。

Mapungubwe位于南非北部,在博茨瓦纳和津巴布韦边界附近,在公元1200-1300年间,这里生产黄金。黄金枯竭以后,这里有700年无人居住。一直到1933年它被发现。它被联合国教科文组织认定为世界文化遗产,它被认为是最具有多样性的地区,南非的等级社会制度。除了文化遗产,这里还有非常丰富的植物和动物资源。包括1000年古老的Baobab树,多种动物,其中包括大象,长颈鹿,白犀牛,羚羊和400多种鸟类

建筑师Peter Rich在非同凡响的环境中设计了1500平方米的游客中心,用来展示本地的历史,容纳艺术品,还有游客需要的设施和SAN的办公室。建筑采用石头墙,屋顶是连续的拱。建筑位于一片砂岩可林地的背景里。

拱顶由麻省理工学院的John Ochsendorf和剑桥大学的Michael Ramage设计,使用有600年历史的传统铃鼓拱顶(timbrel vaulting)技术,减少对经济和环境的影响。使用当地压制出来的土砖。可以减少使用模板,没有用钢筋。此外,施工过程融合了对非技术工人的扶贫项目,通过本地非熟练工人生产20万砖。

Mapungubwe翻译中心项目用古老的结构施工技术去实现了最新发展的几何形状。用一个现代的设计,去容纳数百个古老的艺术品。


Last year, architectural photographer Iwan Baan took a trip to South Africa to visit the Mapungubwe Interpretation Center designed by Peter Rich Architects.

Mapungubwe, located on South Africa’s northern border with Botswana and Zimbabwe, prospered between 1200 and 1300 AD by being one of the first places that produced gold, but after its fall it remained uninhabited for over 700 years, until it’s discovery in 1933. The society living in what today is Unesco World Heritage Site, is thought to have been the most complex in the region, implementing the first class-based social system in southern Africa. And besides the cultural heritage, Mapungubwe is also home to an immensely rich flora and fauna, including over 1000 years old Baobab trees and a big variety of animal life, including elephant, giraffe, white rhino, antelopes and 400 bird species.

In this surreal setting Peter Rich has designed a 1,500 sqm visitor’s center which includes spaces to tell the stories of the place and house artifacts, along with tourist facilities and SANParks offices. The complex is a collection of stone cladded vaults balancing on the sloped site, against the backdrop of Sandstone formations and mopane woodlands.

The vaults have been designed in collaboration with John Ochsendorf from MIT and Michael Ramage, Univ. of Cambridge, using a 600 years old construction system to achieve a low economical and environmental impact. The traditional timbrel vaulting, using locally made pressed soil cement tiles, allows the design to be materialized with minimal formwork and no steel reinforcement. In addition, the ambition was to also integrate local unskilled labor into a poverty relief program by training them to produce the over 200,000 tiles necessary in the construction of the domes.

The Mapungubwe Interpretive Center was realized using latest developments in structural geometry along with an ancient construction technique, in order to implement a contemporary design, meant to house hundreds of years old artifacts.