M.H.青年艺术博物馆/赫尔佐格+德梅隆

赫尔佐格和德梅隆设计的M.H. de Young纪念馆是对原有纪念馆的一次令人瞩目的复兴。原来的纪念馆于1895年开放,它是1894年芝加哥世界博览会的哥伦比亚展馆的仿制品。它位于加利福尼亚州阳光明媚的旧金山,博物馆以本地的一名新闻记者MH de Young命名。老博物馆体量庞大,混凝土装饰已经开始脱落,成为危险建筑,于1949年拆除。该建筑被1989年的Loma Prieta地震彻底摧毁。

新设计与老博物馆不同,新设计采用大胆惊人的结构,容纳许多艺术品展览内容。游客的体验从博物馆外开始。室外景观设计的目标是创造一个舒适,功能性的环境,让旅客享受加州的明媚气氛。具体功能包括:一个公共雕塑花园,有悬挑屋顶的露台,一个儿童乐园。景观设计其余部分的重点是建立建筑与周围环境的联系,采用了19世纪的原有博物馆的历史装饰、水池、棕榈树和狮身人面像。

赫尔佐格和德梅隆以创新方式使用建筑材料而闻名,这次,他们设计了现代的结构去保留原有的文物,新的博物馆在原址上就像原有博物馆的纪念碑。他们选择的自然材料,如铜,木材,石材,玻璃,使设计成为周围环境的一部分。景观中的路径通向博物馆的四个入口,让游客从任何一面进入博物馆。博物馆内部,木地板和装饰营造温馨的气氛,引导游客从一个房间到另一个房间。宽大的带形窗让游客看到室外的景观,模糊了建筑的内外。

博物馆的立面处理很有趣。赫尔佐格和德梅隆故意让铜幕墙在自然氧化作用下逐渐变成绿色,以此融入自然环境。立面的表皮也表达了光线透过树叶的概念。

最后,设计了一个地平线上的纪念碑,塔高144英尺,从地面旋转天空,其网格与附近的居民区的街道对齐。楼顶是观景台可以看到海湾。位于博物馆中心的戏剧性旋转的塔以现代的形式,表达了对原有历史的敬意。


The M.H. de Young Memorial Museum by Herzog & de Meuron is a remarkable revival of a building that no longer exists. The original museum, which opened in 1895, was an outgrowth of a fair modeled on the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition the previous year known as?the California Midwinter Internation Exposition of 1894. Located in the sunny San Francisco, California, the museum was formerly named for one of the city's newspapermen M.H. de Young. The old museum was a bulky structure decorated with concrete ornaments, which began falling off the building and became hazardous, leading to their removal in 1949. The building was completely destroyed, however, in 1989 by the Loma Prieta earthquake.

Unlike the old museum, the new design consists of a bold striking structure that is as much part of the exhibit as the art it contains. A visitor’s experience begins from outside of the museum. The landscape was designed to create a pleasant, functional environment that would allow visitors to enjoy California’s welcoming climate. Specific features are a public sculpture garden, a terrace beneath a cantilevered roof, and a children’s garden. The rest of the landscape design focuses on creating a link between the building and its surroundings through historic elements from the original de Young Museum that include original palm trees along with the Pool of Enchantment and sphinx structures that have been standing since the opening of the 19th century museum.

Known for their experimentation with materials in their designs, Herzog and de Meuron contributed a modern structure that allows original artifacts to remain, works successfully as a museum, and is a monument in its area just like the original museum. Their choice of natural materials, such as copper, wood, stone, stone, and glass allows the design to become part of the land it occupies. The landscape design?includes pathways that lead into the four entrances of the museum, allowing visitors to enter from any side of the building. Inside, wood flooring and finishes create a warm atmosphere that lead visitors from room to room. Large ribbon windows continously remind art lovers of their exterior surroundings,?blurring the lines between inside and outside.

Most interesting of all was the choice for the exterior of the museum. Herzog & de Meuron intentionally chose a copper facade which would slowly become green due to oxidation and therefore fade into its natural surroundings. The facade is also textured to represent light filtering through a tree.

Finally, the design becomes a monument on the skyline, rising 144 feet with a tower that twists from the ground to the sky where it aligns with the grid formed by the streets of the nearby neighborhoods. At the top an obvservation floor provides views of the Bay area. The tower’s dramatic twist in its center is a bold statement both close up and from a distance, and is a distinguishable modern monument that honors the history it was designed to represent.